immuno lab tests

  1. whats the procedure for western blot
    • pt serum is added to nylon test strip
    • strip is incubated and any HIV antibodies will bind to antigens on the membrane
    • unbound antibodies are washed
    • antiantibodies with enzyme label (conjugate) are added and binds to anti antibodies
    • unbound conjugate is washed leaving bound conjugate (labeled enzyme)
    • colored bands appear in positions of HIV antibodies present
  2. western blot tests for
    HIV antibodies
  3. what are the negative, positive, indeterminate, results look like on a western blot
    • negative control: no band or band correspondence
    • positive control: matching bands
    • indeterminate: some matched bands but not enough for a positive result
  4. what are some indeterminate results caused by in the western blot
    • contaminants
    • false positives
  5. HCG tests for
    B subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, a glyoprotein produced in the placenta shortly after fertilization
  6. false negatives of HCG
    • very diluted specimen
    • interference by HAMA (human antimouse antibodies)
  7. false positives of HCG
    • tumors producing elevated HCG
    • trophoblastic disease
  8. purpose of cold agglutination titers
    • to test for titers for agglutination at temps below 37 C
    • reaction of strength is greatest at 0-4 C
  9. what are the two groups of cold agglutinations
    • 1. harmless, present in all normal sera
    • 2. pathogenic found in chronic hemagglutanin and infection
    • malaria, mono, influenza, cirrhosis
  10. what type of diease does cold agglutination titers used for
    mycoplasma pneumoniae
  11. what does RF hemagglutanin test for
    • rheumatoid factor (RF): an antibody produced in rheumatoid arthritis (joint inflammation)
    • RF proteins are class IgM that act as antibodies, binding to Fc of IgG
    • uses sheep agglutinins as carriers , rabbit gamma globulin
  12. false positives of RF hemagluttanin
  13. RPR tests for
    • non treponemal tests for damaged cells, detecting antibodies against cardiolipin (reagin)
    • RPR stands for "rapid plasma reagin" which are IgM or IgG class
  14. RPR is based on
    flocculation: precipitation occurring over narrow range of antigen concentration using charcoal antigens as carriers
  15. treponemal tests for
    • specifically treponema pallidium in syphilis, used to positively confirm true positive from false positives in nontreponemal tests
    • FTA (flouresecent treponemal antibody)
    • TRPA (treponemal pallidium particle agglutination)
  16. describe the antibody concentration of treponemal and nontreponemal test (treated + untreated)
    • treponemal antibodies will be 100% reactive in secondary and latent syphilis
    • non treponemal when untreated will decrease during latent stage but will remain in the body
    • treponemal when treated will decrease completely from latent stage and further
  17. (TP-PA) T pallidium particle agglutination test
    • a type of particle agglutination test using sheep RBCs to test for T palliudium
    • treponemal test
    • sensitive for primary syphilis
  18. describe FTA-ABS
    • flourescent treponemal antibody absorption test
    • a dilution of heat inactivated patient serum with treponemes is added to a well and washed to removed excess conjugate. The antibody conjugate will flourescense
  19. describe tests for infectious mononuceleosis
    • caused by Epstein Bar Virus (EBV)
    • using heterophile horse agglutinins, IgM class
  20. what could result in false positives for mono
    • hepatitis
    • leukemia
    • rubella
    • rheumatoid arthritis
    • burketts lymphoma
  21. describe spread of contact, anEpstein Barr Virus
    • spread through salivary excretions
    • symptoms are fever lymphadenopathy, sore throat, fatigue
  22. whats found on the blood smear for infectious mono
    • reactive lymphs, high lypmh count of 50%
    • presence of heterophile IgM antibodies to certain EBV antigens
  23. what is the test to detect for heterophile antibodies of IM
    • used to be monospot now test for immunochromatographic assay using bovine RBC antigen
    • indirect immunoflourescence (IFA) assay using EBV infected cells: most sensitive and highest specificity
    • ELISA using synthetic EBV proteins
Card Set
immuno lab tests
some of the immunoassay tests and agglutination tests used to determine diseases