1. Approach
    a way of defining what and how the students need to learn
  2. syllabus
    a way of organizing the course and materials
  3. structural syllabus
    organized around grammatical or phonological structures-- sequenced from easy to difficult, or rerent to less frequent
  4. situational syllabus
    • situations (e.g. "at the bank", "at the supermarket, "at a restaurant", etc.) form the organizing principles
    • sequenced by how likely students will encounter them
  5. topical syllabus
    • topics/themes form the organizing principle
    • e.g. health, food, clothing, etc.
  6. functional syllabus
    • functions are the organizing principle 
    • e.g. identifying, reporting, correcting, describing, etc.
  7. notional syllabus
    • organized around conceptual categories called notions
    • e.g. duration, quantity, location, etc.
    • may use structural and/r situational sequences in the background
  8. skills-based syllabus
    organized around skills such as reading for the main idea, listening for inferences, reading for specific details, etc.
  9. task-based syllabus
    • tasks for activity-based categories serve as the basis for organization
    • e.g. drawing maps, following directions, etc.
  10. mixed syllabus
    • more than one type of syllabi are combined and used in the classroom
    • e.g. one lesson is built upon a topic and the next focus on a task
  11. layered syllabus
    one syllabus is the main syllabus used, but others can be used in a subordinate position
  12. techniques
    • way in which we present the language
    • category of teaching activities that seems to be relatively independent from approaches and syllabi. a given technique could be used with different syllabi or approaches
    • teaching/presenting language to students, not practice
  13. exercises
    • ways to practice the language
    • practice activities like group or pair work, on paper, or in a book, etc. to practice something that's been explained
    • things that you can grade/assess are usually exercises
  14. eclecticism
    the practice of making informed choices among the available approaches, syllabi, techniques, and exercises in order to adapt to a particular group of students in particular situation for the purposes of most effectively and efficiently helping them to learn language
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