a way of defining what and how the students need to learn
a way of organizing the course and materials
organized around grammatical or phonological structures-- sequenced from easy to difficult, or rerent to less frequent
- situations (e.g. "at the bank", "at the supermarket, "at a restaurant", etc.) form the organizing principles
- sequenced by how likely students will encounter them
- topics/themes form the organizing principle
- e.g. health, food, clothing, etc.
- functions are the organizing principle
- e.g. identifying, reporting, correcting, describing, etc.
- organized around conceptual categories called notions
- e.g. duration, quantity, location, etc.
- may use structural and/r situational sequences in the background
organized around skills such as reading for the main idea, listening for inferences, reading for specific details, etc.
- tasks for activity-based categories serve as the basis for organization
- e.g. drawing maps, following directions, etc.
- more than one type of syllabi are combined and used in the classroom
- e.g. one lesson is built upon a topic and the next focus on a task
one syllabus is the main syllabus used, but others can be used in a subordinate position
- way in which we present the language
- category of teaching activities that seems to be relatively independent from approaches and syllabi. a given technique could be used with different syllabi or approaches
- teaching/presenting language to students, not practice
- ways to practice the language
- practice activities like group or pair work, on paper, or in a book, etc. to practice something that's been explained
- things that you can grade/assess are usually exercises
the practice of making informed choices among the available approaches, syllabi, techniques, and exercises in order to adapt to a particular group of students in particular situation for the purposes of most effectively and efficiently helping them to learn language