Anthro 2A Final

  1. Local Levels of Social Analysis
    analyzing relationships in a single society (village)
  2. Macro Levels of Social Analysis
    analyzing relationships in between societies (colonialism, globalization, trade)
  3. Imperialism
    • practice of building and running an empire
    • one society dominating another society
  4. Colonialism
    • a form of imperialism
    • involves the direct administration of people
  5. Three waves of W. European Imperialism
    • "Discovery of the New World
    • Early Industrial Capitalism
    • Late 19th and Early 20th Century
  6. "Discovery" of the New World
    • Spain, Portugual
    • United provinces of Netherlands, Great Britain, and France
    • Imperialism similar to that of former empires
  7. Early Industrial Capitalism
    • Great Britain in the 18th and early 19th Centuries
    • Industrial Capitalism
    • New economic demands such as raw materials and markets
  8. Late 19th and Early 20th Century
    • other nations industrialize
    • dividing up the World
    • Japan
  9. Profit and Colonies: Direct Settlement
    • send people to form markets/start colonies
    • penal colonies:convicts sent overseas
  10. Profit and Colonies: Develop Research Extraction
    • mining
    • plantations growing cash crops
  11. Profit and Colonies: Make use of the Labor of Local People
    Direct Coercion:force the people to work for you
  12. Slave Trade
    • direct coercion
    • taking local peoples and turning them into slaves
  13. Blackbirding in the Pacific
    • direct coercion
    • get people to think they were trading, then force them down and force them to sign into indentured servant agreements
  14. Concription
    • direct coercion
    • colonial order for people to work on a project for an amount of time
  15. Indirect means of accessing labor of local people
    • taxes (had to be payed in colonial's currency)
    • take away people's land (ex. British Colonial Administration of Kenya took 70% of Kenya's land)
  16. Impacts of Colonialism on the Colonized (5)
    • Depopulation
    • Dispossession of Land
    • Abusive forms of labor control
    • Environmental degradation
    • Undermining local cultural tradition
  17. Disease
    • N & S America and Pacific Islands
    • small pox, measles, and influenza wiped out millions of people
    • Native American Populations- 15th century:7 million people; pop. low point was 390,000 with a drop of over 90%
  18. Heroro Revolt of 1904
    • German colony of SW Africa
    • Heroro revolted
    • 1500 German troops sent to retake the colony
    • Heroro population of 120,000 reduced to 20,000 by 1906
  19. Genocide
    attempt to wipe out an entire group (ethnically, racially, etc.)
  20. The "Frontier"
    • cultural ordering of space
    • transform "nature" to "culture"
    • State of California payed Indian bounty hunters ($10 for a scalp, $20 for a head)
  21. Reserves
    • poor quality land
    • Native Americans were forced to move here
    • they had no economic opportunity
  22. Indian Removal Act of 1830
    • Andrew Jackson issued this
    • Native Americans were forced to move to marginal lands/reserves
    • Trail of Tears
  23. Land Tenure- Privatization Land vs. Communal Land
    • communal land is inalienable (belongs to lineage)
    • colonizer changed land from communal to privatized (alienable)
  24. Commodification
    to put market value on land
  25. Alienable and Inalienable
    • alienable- no connection to prior people
    • inalienable- has lasting association with a person, context, event (ex. inalienable rights)
  26. The Mahale
    • they had communal land in Hawaii
    • people who wanted sugar cane pressured the King to privatize the land
    • in 1848 the lands were privatized so missionaries began buying the land while the common people were losing the land
    • this eventually began the sugar cane market
  27. Rubber Production in the Belgian Congo
    • abusive form of labor
    • there was extreme punishments for silly things
  28. Phosphate mining on Nauru
    • Germans took over and found phosphate
    • example of environmental degradation
    • completely destroyed the land
  29. Anthropological Theory and Colonialism
    • Scientific Racism
    • Unilinear Social Evolutionism
    • Social Darwinism
  30. Scientific Racism
    dehumanization; failure to qualify for human rights
  31. Unilinear Social Evolutionism
    • evolution in a series or sequence
    • Savagery-Barbarism-Civilization
    • "white man's burden" is to change the ones that are "stuck"
  32. Social Darwinism
    • more fit societies come to dominate less fit societies in control of limited resources
    • it's believed to be a natural process
    • naturalizes and legitimizes mistreatment/genocide
  33. Imperialism and the Post Colonial World
    former colonies are now independent, but imperialism still continues- elite take control of resources, economic/political relationships still exist
  34. "Development"
    unilinear evolution of nations, asking elderly how we got to where we are now, therefore you can learn history and see change
  35. Intervention Philosophies
    ideological justification for outsiders to guide natives in specific directions
  36. Power and Representions
    power comes in multiple forms, whether it be economical, political, military, or social
  37. Capitalist World System (3)
    • Core
    • Semiperipherary
    • Peripherary
  38. Capitalism World System- Core
    • fully industrialized nations with high standards of living multiple indistries
    • import raw materials
    • export goods
  39. Capitalism World System- Semiperipherary
    • industrialized but not enough influence
    • in between core and peripherary
  40. Capitalism World System- Peripherary
    • little industrialization
    • small amounts of industries
    • labor intensive
    • import goods
    • export raw materials
  41. Capitalism
    an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry is controlled by a private owner for profit, rather than by state
  42. Totalizing
    a form of misrepresentation
  43. Capitalism on the Peripherary
    • people work for low wages
    • corporations see opportunities in overseas labor
  44. Routinization of Production
    production is easy, made routine
  45. Taylorism
    • management techniques
    • set up labor as an assembly line
    • do not require skill because you only learn one step
  46. Multi-National Corporations
    • activities operate many countries
    • factories/marketing/ HQs may be in different countries
  47. Free Trade Zones (FTZ)
    zones in countries that do not follow certain laws in order to create incentives for multi-national corporations to come to that country
  48. Proliterianization
    • process of creating capitalist workers out of people who previously produced their own food for consumption and sale
    • ex. women factory workers of Malaysia
  49. Capitalist Discipline
    effect of the exercise of power on subjugated workers and their compliance with production
  50. Anthropological Perspective on "the Political"
    men in power, but daughters spend time around mothers
  51. Power
    spoken in terms of shaping social practices
  52. Docile Bodies
    • do what you're told, no strikes/complaints
    • young women are prioritized in the factories because they are docile
  53. Malaysia
    • near the equator off the top of Thailand
    • former British colony
    • now an independent nation that wants to industrialize
  54. 2020 Program (plan)
    • a plan so Malaysia would be fully industrialized by the year 2020
    • encourage foreign investment
  55. Kampung (Village)
    • Malay hamlet/village
    • smaller than a town
    • basic community
  56. Adat
    • older cultural order/system
    • underlying matrilineal emphasis
    • strong connection between mother and children
  57. Islam
    • religion
    • part of culture source that came from India
    • introduced in Malaysia
  58. Rural Malay Gender Constructions
    • men are spiritually strong, able to resist temptations
    • women are spiritually weak, threat to men, influenced by feelings
  59. Gender and Authority in Village Homes
    men hold authority and control women because they are a threat to men
  60. Female Threats to Male Spiritual Purity
    • wome'n use body to tempt men
    • this can destroy a man's purity therefore women must be controlled
  61. Dangerous Places
    women cannot go outside of the village because the Hantu might be lurking and women are not strong enough to fight off Hantu
  62. Spirits (Hantu)
    a "demon" that "possesses" a woman worker (actually a nervous breakdown)
  63. Stages of a Woman's Life
    • Youth, virgins- weakest state, under protective authority of father, can't leave village
    • Sexually mature women- a little spiritually stronger, greatest threat to men, under husband's authority
    • Elderly women- spiritually strong, no longer a threat to men, most respected, no supervision, no Hantu possessions
  64. Janda
    • divorced or widowed woman
    • most dangerous woman of all
    • not under a male authority
    • note- Janda lies outside of village cultural categories
  65. Time in the Kampung vs. the Factory
    • in Kampung "time is passed, not spent", time flows with rhythm of prayers, chores, and activities
    • in the factory the clock regulates the day, "now is spent", women are constantly changing work shifts, "fractured day"
  66. Tyranny of the Clock
    clock dictates what you do at all times in the factory, stressful
  67. Fractured Day
    work and socializing time are separate
  68. Education and Work Differences between Sons and Daughters
    • Sons- expected to go to secondary school, long periods of unemployment are ok, working up to a government job
    • Daughters- expected to go to elementary school then get married and have children
  69. Changes in Authority in the Village
    • working daughters bring income in household therefore bring leverage
    • brothers borrow money from them
    • women allocate money
  70. Microchip Factories an the FTZ- attracting a young female workforce
    • single young women, temporary work, keep labor costs low,
    • inefficiencies by deteriorating eyesight.
  71. Micro-chip factories in FTZ- reproduction of patriarchy in the factory
    docile workforce, male supervisors are linked to fathers, use of kin terms
  72. Micro-chip factories in FTZ: unlimited production demands
    pushing women to work more/faster
  73. Discipline in the Factory vs. in the Kampung
    • Factory- surveillance by men; double sided mirrors; factory clothing; targets body location/position/layout
    • Kampung- no supervision if any done by women
  74. Worker Response to Stress
    crying, "accidents", bathroom/prayer hall breaks, spirit possession
  75. Spirit Possession on the Shop Floor
    • factories were built on forests where Hantu was said to be
    • possessed women must have an exorcism performed on them
  76. Bio-Politics (Bio-Power)- construction of the female bodies
    • the idea of making power relations natural based on biological body determinants
    • women bodies were made to work, they have more butt padding, smaller more gentle hands etc.
  77. Biological Determinism
    • justification for position in society based on biological factors
    • power of culture to naturalize
  78. Public Perceptions of the Female Worker
    negatively viewed, said to be sluts, walking around town unsupervised, too "bebas"
  79. Bebas
    • unrestricted by custody
    • freedom to do whatever they want
    • sinful
  80. Spirit Possession as Resistance
    • spirit possession leads to the factory being shut down
    • it's a culturally appropriate form of resistance by the women in their politically weak position
  81. Hegemony
    a state of affairs where the power relations of societies are accepted- taken to be natural, "by God"
  82. Public Transcript and Hidden Transcript
    • public- seeming acceptance of public relations
    • hidden- what is said outside of master's presence
  83. Discourse
    a communicated message about what's true
  84. Hegemony Discourse
    • a discourse in which the message justifies the power relations in societies
    • ex. divine power of king- political order mirrors divine order
  85. Counter-Hegemony Discourse
    • challenges the way political decisions are made
    • revolutionary discourse
    • when resistance goes "underground"
  86. Applied Anthropology
    when one uses anthropology perspectives, theories, methods, or data to identify and solve problems
  87. Underdifferentiation
    tendency to view lesser developed countries as all the same without considering the cultural differences that actually exists
  88. Globality
    the world is interconnected
  89. Cultural Imperialism
    take away culture from a group of peoples and force your own on them
  90. Indigenizing Popular Culture
    taking an object/idea and changing it to fit another culture's context
  91. Diaspora
    dispersion of any people from their homeland
  92. Postmodernism in Anthropology
    describes a world in which traditional standards contrasts group boundaries and identities are opening up/breaking down
  93. Medical Discourse and Gender
    • women cannot withstand PMS(premenstrual syndrome)
    • excuse to keep women inside homes
  94. Science's Use of Metaphors for Egg and Sperm
    • sperm- does a lot of work
    • egg- lazy/does nothing, is "in distress"
  95. Construction of Spermatogenesis and Oogeneis
    • sperm is created daily- aggressive
    • egg is unproductive- wasteful and passive
  96. The Data: Egg and Sperm Production
    • women are born with all their eggs
    • men make sperm daily
    • but women are still wasteful
  97. The Data: Fertilization
    sperm is actually weak, egg lets the sperm in
  98. The A Priori Interpretation of Data
    • aggressive sperm- active, masculine men
    • passive egg= weak, vulnerable women
  99. PMS
    • premenstrual syndrome- physical/behavioral/emotional "symptoms"
    • both biologically/social relations
  100. Cult of Invalidism
    • women use brain less; more energy
    • PMS takes a lot of energy; rich women can take time off but poor women need to work
  101. Research and Economic Cycles- PMS & Menstruation
    schedule harder work around period for distraction
  102. Menstruation in Cross Cultural Perspective- Ivory Coast & Yurok
    • Ivory Coast- cyclic change in women's usual activities
    • Yurok- powerful; at peak; meditate
  103. Discipline in Workplace
    PMS is the fault of why husband is failing at work
  104. Discipline at Home
    women who PMS don't do chores; yell at the kids
  105. PMS and Gender Roles
    • makes women seem weak
    • victims of nature
    • men are stronger
    • naturalness of male authority in society
  106. PMS-Flaws of Women or of Society?
    • society
    • it's a cultural construct that is seen as a bad thing
    • PMS is seen differently in other cultures
  107. Spirit Possession and PMS as Resistance
    protests against societies that are accepted because they are viewed as natural
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Anthro 2A Final