The MMPI was first published in ______ by _______ and ________
in 1943 by Starke Hathaway, Ph.D., and Charnley McKinley, M.D.
Why was the MMPI developed?
Believed that a group-administered, paper-and- pencil personality inventory would provide a more efficient and reliable way of arriving at appropriate psychdiagnostic labels.
Used the ______ _______ approach in the construction of the various MMPI scales. This was novel at the
- a. 1 Hypochondriasis
- b. 2 Depression
- c. 3 Hysteria
- d. 4 Psychopathic Deviate
- e. 5 Masculinity-Femininity
- f. 6 Paranoia
- g. 7 Psychasthenia
- h. 8 Schizophrenia
- i. 9 Hypomania
- j. 0 Social Introversion
What has led to the popularity of the MMPI?
used to generate descriptions and inferences about individuals on the basis of their scores (Code Types). It is this behavioral description approach to the utilization of the test in everyday practice that has led to its tremendous popularity
Changes to the Revised Current Version of the MMPI-2
- Published in 1989 and consist of 567 items
- has a better representative standardization sample
- Is the psychological test considered by internship directors to be most essential for practicing psychologists
What are code types?
A pattern of the scores in relation to one another
Most of the MMPI coding profile empirical information is based on ______ and ______ code types.
To have a defined two-point code, there must be a difference of at least _____ T-score points between the 2 nd highest Clinical scale score and the 3 rd highest.
MMPI Validity Scales-Test Taking Attitudes
- a. Cannot Say (?)
- b. Lie (L)
- c. Infrequency (F)
- d. Correction (K)
- e. Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN)
- f. True Response Inconsistency (TRIN)
- g. Back F (FB)
- h. Infrequency Psychopathology (Fp)
- i. Superlative Self-Presentation (S)
- j. Symptom Validity (FBS)
MMPI: Validity Scales - ? Scale ( Cannot Say; Cs)
The ? Scale is not actually a formal scale but merely represents the number of items left unanswered on the profile sheet. To minimize the number of “cannot say” responses, the client should be encouraged to answer
MMPI: Validity Scales - VRIN (Variable Response Inconsistency Scale)
Comprises pairs of selected questions that would be expected to be answered in a consistent manner, but they are not.
MMPI: Validity Scales - TRIN (True Response Inconsistency Scale)
Similar to VRIN in that is comprises pairs of items, but in this case, the responses are supposed to be opposites.
MMPI: Validity Scales - F scale (Infrequency)
Measures the extent to which a person answers in an atypical and deviant manner. The F scale items were selected based on their endorsement by less than 10% of the population
MMPI: Validity Scales - FB (F back) Scale (MMPI-2; F1 and F2-MMPI- A
The 40-item FB was designed to identify a “fake bad” for the last 197 items because the F scale was developed for the first 370 items.
MMPI: Validity Scales - Fp (Infrequency-Psychopathology ) Scale
27 item scale that reflects items infrequently answered by psychiatric patients-Indicates faking psychopathology among psychiatric patients
MMPI: Validity Scales - Fake Bad Scale (FBS)
The Fake Bad Scale (FBS) as developed to detect personal injury claimants who were exaggerating their difficulties. Research has been equivocal regarding its ability to detect.
MMPI: Validity Scales - L ( Lie) Scale
L scale consists of 15 items that indicate the extent to which a client is attempting to describe himself or herself in an unrealistically positive manner.
MMPI: Validity Scales - K (Correction) Scale
Designed to detect clients who are describing themselves in overly positive terms, similar to L. However the K scale is more subtle and effective.
MMPI: Validity Scales - S (Superlative )Scale
Because the K and L scales have been found to be only moderately effective in differentiating persons who fake good, the S scale was developed to more accurately identify persons attempting to appear overly virtuous.
- reduced in length to 388 items
- The core of the MMPI-2- RF are the restructured Clinical scales and the Psychopathology Five ( PSY-5) scales
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RCd/Demoralization-
Discouraged, pessimistic, poor self-esteem, sense of failure, emotional discomfort, helpless, anxious, somatic symptoms
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RCI/Somatic Complaints
Presence of significant health difficulties, somatization of of physical complaints, constant worry about physical health
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RC2/Low Positive Emotions
Withdrawn, passive, self-critical, insufficient energy to deal with life; isolated, bored, little ability to experience pleasure
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RC3/Cynicism
High scorers are perceived as uncaring, untrustworthy, and will readily exploit others; in contrast, low scorers are likely to be gullible, naïve, and trust others too readily
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RC4/Antisocial Behavior
Angry, argumentative, aggressive, nonconforming, legal difficulties, lying, cheating, stealing, substance abuse, sexual acting out
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RC6/Ideas of Persecution
Feels they are being controlled and victimized by external forces, feels mistreated, has difficulty trusting others
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RC7/Dysfunctional Negative Emotions
Anxious, irritable, general unhappiness and helplessness, interpersonal sensitivity, ruminates, guilt
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RC8/Aberrant Experiences
Cognitive, motor, perceptual, and sensory disturbances; possible visual, auditory, or olfactory hallucinations, high scores suggest impaired ability to test reality
MMPI-2 Restructured Form Clinical Scales: RC9/Hypomanic Activation
High energy, elevated mood, minimal need for sleep, grandiosity, risk taking, poor impulse control; T >75 manic episode
MMPI-2- RF: Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales - AGGR Aggressiveness
Enjoys intimidating others, aggression used to accomplish goals, dominant, history of being physically abusive, antisocial
MMPI-2- RF: Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales - PSYC Psychoticism
Delusions of reference, disorganized thinking, tangential, bizarre, disoriented, depressed
MMPI-2- RF: Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales - DISC Disconstraint
Risk taking, nontraditional, impulsive, easily bored, antisocial, history of having been arrested
MMPI-2- RF: Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales - NEGE Negative Emotionality/Neuroticism
Worry, guilty, self-critical, think in terms of worst-case scenario, dysthymic, anxious, few/no friends, somatic symptoms
MMPI-2- RF: Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Scales - INTR Introversion/Low Emotionality
Depressed, sad, low achievement orientation, introverted, anxious pessimistic, somatic complaints
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-IV (MCMI-IV) information
- 195 items
- Designed for adults (18 years and older)
- Minimum 5 th grade reading level
- Administration Time-approx. 30 minutes
- MCMI Normative Sample-updated in 2015-1,547 Psychiatric patients from US and Canada Developed from Millon’s
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-IV (MCMI-IV): How many clinical scales and what are this subgroups?
- 15 personality
- 10 clinical
MCMI-III was standardized as _______ scores instead of T scores. How are they different from T scores?
- T scores were considered inappropriate by Millon because they assume a normal population distribution.
- Br scores of 60 represent the median for all patients
- For the Personality Scales, BR scores of 75 to 84 signify the presence of clinically significant personality traits, while BR scores above 85 suggest the presence of a disorder.
- For the Clinical Syndrome Scales, BR scores of 75-84 indicate the presence of a syndrome. BR scores above 85 indicate the prominence of a particular syndrome.
NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI- R): “Big 5” domains
NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI- R): what is unique about the big 5 domains?
have been shown to be consistent across diverse cultures
NEO-Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI- R): basic information
- 240-item inventory (45-60 minutes to administer)
- ii. For men and women (17 years +) without overt psychopathology
- iii. 60-item shortened version – NEO-FFI
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
California Psychological Inventory (CPI): what is the focus?
CPI focuses on diagnosing and understanding interpersonal behavior in normal populations.
California Psychological Inventory (CPI): where is it primarily used?
Used primarily in the areas of career development, personnel selection, interpersonal maladjustment, and predicting antisocial behavior
California Psychological Inventory (CPI): what is unique about it?
- an attempt to tap into personality factors that arise without exception to some, varying, degree, in all humans regardless of cultural context,
- 20 Folk Concept Scales
- called "folk" as they attempt to
- capture personality themes that should be broadly cross-cultural and easily understood around the world.
California Psychological Inventory (CPI): basic information
- Self-Administered; 434 true/false statement
- Age range – 12-70 years
- Has two versions: CPI 434 and CPI 260
- CPI is the “sane person’s MMPI”
- Time to Administer
- ▪ CPI 434: 45 to 75 minutes
- ▪ CPI 260: 25-35 minutes
- CPI - one of the most popular personality inventory
Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI)
22 non-overlapping scales
16 Personality Factors (16 PF )
Developed by Raymond Cattell, Ph.D.
In Therapeutic Assessment, clients are involved in what parts of the assessment process?
- determining its goals
- discussing the possible meanings of test results
- preparing written summaries
- and disseminating results to other professionals.
Name the steps for a TA
- a. Initial Sessions
- b. Standardized Testing Sessions
- c. Assessment Intervention Sessions
- d. Discussion/Summary Sessions
- e. Written Feedback
- f. Follow-Up Sessions
Core Values of Therapeutic Assessment are:
- a. Collaboration
- b. Respect
- c. Humility
- d. Compassion
- e. Openness and Curiosity
What does the research say about TA?
- impacts clients more positively than traditional psychological assessment
- that Therapeutic Assessment is a promising brief intervention in itself
- and that Therapeutic Assessment is effective with both adult and child clients.
How does Therapeutic Assessment produce therapeutic change?
- confirming certain views they have of themselves,
- giving them new information about themselves and a greater sense of self-efficacy
- and helping clients feel understood and accepted.
MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR is based on what?
Carl Jung’s theory of personality types; measures value-neutral enduring aspects of personality that remain relatively stable under varying conditions.
Applications of MBTI
- Personal growth
what are the four basic dimensions on which primary psychological
functions are located, yielding 16 code types in graduated strengths
- a. Judging/Perceiving
- b. Thinking/Feeling
- c. Sensing/Intuiting
- d. Introversion/Extroversion
Four orienting functions that we all use on a daily basis
sensing, intuiting, thinking, feeling
Orientation to the outer world is determined by preference for _______ or ________
- judging (order, structure)
- perceiving (valuing of immediate experience)
Those preferring Judging focus on _______ as a main focus, of which there are two kinds: _______ or ________
- decision making
- thinking (use of logic, rational analysis in decision making)
- feeling (subjective, affective response; value-orientation)
Those preferring Perceiving focus on ________ as a main focus, of which there are two kinds: _______ or _______
- information processing
- sensing (drawing upon sentient experience, evidence)
- intuiting (the realm of the unseen)
Preferred attitude/environment: _______ or ________
- extroverted (external world, social)
- introverted (solitude, time to think)
Beck Depression Inventory basic information
- 21 item measure of depression
- Takes 5-10 minutes to take
- Simple to score
- Represents two factors of depression: Somatic-Affective and Cognitive
- Very good test-retest reliability, making it a good measure for assessing outcome
Name the 4 Measures of Substance Abuse
- CAGE-Used very frequently in Emergency Rooms as a screening tool
- T-ACE-Used by OB-GYN physicians to assess alcohol use of pregnant women
- MAST-Michigan Alcohol Screening Test- most popular screening measures; 22 items, correlates with CAGE and AUDIT
- AUDIT-Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-10 items; works well with women, minority populations, youth and young adults. Does not work well with seniors. Developed by the WHO.
Limitations of Projective Techniques
- Reliability is quite low
- Both the examiner and the examinee need to be considered when interpreting the results
- Lack of normative data
- meager validity data
- Some suggest that projective techniques should not be used as tests, but rather as clinical tools for identifying hypotheses that need further investigation.
The Rorschach Performance Assessment System (R-PAS)
grounds the Rorschach in its evidence base, improves its normative foundation, integrates international findings, reduces examiner variability, and increases utility. All while keeping the needs of the new learner in mind.
Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with Psychological Testing: Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing
serves as a technical guide for testing practices and concerns the appropriate uses of tests
Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with Psychological Testing: Who Is Responsible for Appropriate Use?
- Counselors are responsible for monitoring their own practice, but as a professional, they are also responsible for monitoring their profession. If a counselor becomes aware of another practitioner who is misusing an assessment, the counselor is bound:
- i. First, to discuss the misuse with the other practitioner
- ii. If the situation is not remedied at that point, the counselor should then pursue appropriate actions with appropriate professional organization
Ethical and Legal Issues Associated with Psychological Testing: The Right to Results
- Not only do clients have the right to have the assessment process explained to them, they also have the right to an explanation of the results. (ACA Code of Ethics).
- Furthermore, the interpretation of the results must be in terms that they can understand
Important things about the Communication of Test Results to Clients
- be knowledgeable about the information in the test manual ( especially validity information and information regarding the test’s limitations).
- take the time to “optimize” the power of the test ( the test is useful in these ways, within these limitations) and not allow the client to “maximize” the power of the test ( this test speaks the truth)
- Interpreting test results is a part of the therapeutic process.
- need to develop multiple methods of explaining test results.
- When appropriate, psychologists should include visual aids to help explain test results
- should involve descriptive terms rather than numerical scores.
- provide a range of scores than just one score.
- encourage the client to ask questions during the process.
- summarize the results,