Sociology 2

  1. Culture
    the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next.
  2. Material culture
    the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry.
  3. Nonmaterial culture (also called symbolic culture)
    a group’s ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction).
  4. Culture shock
    the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
  5. Ethnocentrism
    the use of one’s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors.
  6. Cultural relativism
    not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms.
  7. Symbolic culture
    another term for nonmaterial culture.
  8. Symbol
    something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others.
  9. Gestures
    the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another.
  10. Language
    a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought
  11. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf’s hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving.
  12. Values
    the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly.
  13. Norms
    expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce behavior
  14. Sanctions
    either expressions of approval given to people for upholding norms or expressions of disapproval for violating them.
  15. Folkways
    norms that are not strictly enforced.
  16. Mores
    norms that are strictly enforced because they are though essential to core values or to the well-being of the group.
  17. Taboo
    a norm so strong that it brings extreme sanctions and even revulsion if someone violates it.
  18. Subculture
    the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world.
  19. Counterculture
    a group whose values, beliefs, norms, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture.
  20. Pluralistic society
    a society made up of many different groups, with contrasting values and orientations to life.
  21. Value cluster
    values that together form a larger whole.
  22. Value contradiction
    values that contradict one another; to follow the one means to come into conflict with the other.
  23. Ideal culture
    a people’s ideal values and norms; the goals held out for them.
  24. Real culture
    the norms and values that people actually follow.
  25. Cultural universal
    a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group.
  26. Sociobiology
    a framework of thought that views human behavior as the result of natural selection and considers biological factors to be the fundamental cause of human behavior.
  27. Technology
    in its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools.
  28. New technology
    the emerging technologies of an era that have a significant impact on social life.
  29. Cultural lag
    Ogburn’s term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations.
  30. Cultural diffusion
    the spread of cultural traits from one group to another; includes both material and nonmaterial cultural traits.
  31. Cultural leveling
    the process by which cultures become similar to one another; refers especially to the process by which Western culture is being exported and diffused into other nations.
Card Set
Sociology 2
concept list chapter 2