week 5 readings

  1. structural approaches
    are supposed to describe the person is like in general and tend to emphasize the mean along and dismiss the remainder of the distribution as meaningless
  2. process approaches
    describe how individuals differentially react to situations and tend to emphasize the variability within the distribution, dismissing individual's unique distribution parameters as unpredictable
  3. 5 empirical outcomes - SHIFT FOCUS
    • the wider the typical individual's distribution, the more of any given individual's behavior left undescribed by his or her mean alone
    • single states would not be stable (predictable), as predicting an individual's precise momentary location within the distribution would be inefficient 
    • means of the distributions nonetheless would be highly stable, bc the distribution is the reliable characteristic of individual's behavior and the location is an important feature of the distributions
    • at least one other parameter of distributions would also be stable 
    • within-person behavioral variability must be meaningful (predictable) and, preferably, differentially so for different individuals
  4. location
    average tendency of the individual's states
  5. size
    standard deviation - diversity of the individual's behaviour/how differently they act from moment to moment
  6. shape (skewed or kurtosis)
    describes the frequency and direction of an individual's extreme behaviour
  7. five main assertions of whole trait theory
    • the descriptive side of traits is best thought of as density distributions of states 
    • it is important to provide an explanatory account of the Big 5 
    • adding an explanatory account to the Big 5 creates two parts to traits, an explanatory part and a descriptive part, and these two parts are distinct entities that nevertheless can be joined into whole traits bc one of the parts is the causal consequence of the other part 
    • the explanatory part of traits consists of social-cognitive mechanisms 
    • what needs to be done next is to identity social-cognitive mechanisms that produce Big-5 states
  8. interpretative processes
    represents the cognitive aspects of the mind
  9. motivational processes
    the representation of desired and feared end-states that create the directional impetus in the individual
  10. stability-inducing processes
    account for factors that guide the individual towards his or her typical trait manifestation, such as genetic, homostatic, or habit forces
  11. temporal processes
    is necessary to account for influences of past events on the present, such as inertia or cycles
  12. random error processes
    is needed to account for unpredictable trait manifestations
Card Set
week 5 readings