(T/F) The mode is commonly considered to be the average. The mean is the midpoint.
Both sentences are false.
When using materials developed by a dental care product/supply company, it is most important that the dental hygienist ensure the____
Material is accurate
____ refers to a relationship or association between variables that can be measured mathematically.
Quantitative evaluation generally refers to:
How much a program accomplished
What group is charged with reviewing the ethical implications of a research study?
Institutional Review Board
(T/F) Ethics, in a “nutshell” is about always doing the right thing.
Health care workers have a major responsibility to be:
Which type of study is an in-depth report on a single person, group, event or situation?
What oral health condition can easily be measured by a questionnaire?
The local dental hygiene association worked on policy change that banned sugary beverages from school vending machines. This is an example of
Which study design is usually the first step in looking at a disease?
What is a body of techniques that uses observation, reason, and experimentation to further evidence?
What does the abbreviation DMFS mean?
Decayed, missing and filled permanent tooth surfaces
A special characteristic of the Root Caries Index (RCI) as compared to other dental indexes is:
It is unique in that it includes the concept of teeth at risk
(T/F) Culture is related to dental hygiene because disease and health are often culturally determined.
A 12-year-old child is being examined for dental fluorosis using Dean’s Fluorosis Index. She has mild Fluorosis on teeth #8 and #9 and very mild fluorosis on teeth #3, 14, 19, and 30. How would she be classified in terms of fluorosis?
Research misconduct may include:
all choices are correct
(Plagiarism, falsifying or fabricating data, copyright or patent infringement)
Which study tries to investigate cause-and-effect relationships and involves manipulation of variables?
During which stage of program planning are the goals/objectives measured?
Which of the following caries indexes applies to primary dentition?
The Patient Hygiene Performance Index (PHP) assess the extent of:
plaque and debris
Which is NOT true for the BSS?
All choices are correct for BSS
(Developed by the Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors in 1999, Gathers information on a per-person basis, BSS stands for Basic Screening Survey)
(T/F) DMFS measures caries experience in permanent teeth, while the dmfs measures caries experience in primary teeth.
The highest quality of scientific information is based on:
Clinical trials with control groups
(T/F) Females have been found to have higher DMF scores than males. One could also conclude from these findings that females are more caries susceptible than their male counterparts.
The first statement is TRUE, the second statement is FALSE
The Ramfjord teeth commonly used to simplify dental indexes include:
6 teeth: maxillary right first molar, left central incisor, and left first premolar; mandibular left first molar, right central incisor, and right first premolar
A treatment category of I on the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) indicates that:
Bleeding was observed upon probing
Which of the following indicates is used to measure oral debris?
Which of the Following indexes should be used to estimate most severe periodontal disease?
Which is NOT a step of the Scientific Method?
(All choices are correct)
Report findings to the scientific community, form an educated guess, check and interpret, test, name problem or question
(T/F) Minority populations are still underrepresented in the health professions.
The LPA dental index assess:
Loss of periodontal attachment
Program planning encompasses dental hygiene diagnosis of a population and which additional stage(s)?
(all choices are correct)
Evaluation, planning, assessment, implementation
A person’s ethnicity refers to:
The purpose of dental hygiene research is to:
Establish a scientifically based standard of care for dental hygiene practice
(T/F) When research involves human subjects, an informed consent must be obtained because subjects should always understand the research in which they are participating.
Both the statement and the reason are correct and related
(T/F) Beneficence means to remove existing harm, while nonmaleficence means to do no harm.
What is the belief that one’s own culture is better than other cultures?
Culture encompasses which of the following?
(all choices are correct)
Values, beliefs, attitudes
During which program planning stage does the dental hygienist consider the population’s needs, facilities, resources and funding?
An investigation that studies the frequency of flossing and periodontal disease is called a:
Displaying an accepting, non-judgemental demeanor when presented with cultural diversity is a guideline for:
Cross-cultural dental hygiene
(T/F) The following set of values has two modes: 7,7,8,8,5
Which sectors are included in the dental care delivery system in the United States?
All choices are correct
(Federal government, Private Sector, State government)
“Following the presentation, the audience will be able to compare ten healthy and unhealthy snack choices” is an example of a/an:
All of the following groups have limited access to oral health care EXCEPT:
Alternative models for health care delivery:
all answers listed are correct
(indicate non-dentist providers are less expensive to educate, provide quality care without supervision, and have been successful worldwide.
What is/are the most common characteristic(s) of a good and effective community presentation?
all choices are correct
(ability to interact with audience, enthusiastic, knowledgeable, flexible)
The federal government funds dental care for which of the following target populations?
All choices are correct
(inmates, military personnel, veterans with service-connected disability, Native Americans)
Which of the children would MOST likely benefit from a sealant program?
Second and Sixth graders
Laws pertaining to dental hygiene are generally found in the state dental hygiene _____.
(T/F) The Medicaid program instituted in 1968 required states to provide dental screening, diagnosis, and treatment for children up to at least age 20 years old.
Who are the people or groups who have an interest in or are affected by the success of a program?
Prevention is the major objective of public health because it entails:
Ethics, Teamwork and Cost efficiency
The most important determinants of dental utilization are:
Socioeconomic status, dentate status, and gender
All of the following trends may increase access to care EXCEPT:
less restrictive dental and dental hygiene state practice acts
What are the three approaches to care in our healthcare system?
1.treatment of disease
The primary reason for developing the National Institute of Dental Research was to:
address the national dental problems discovered through selective service rejections
(T/F) The key to successful change is to understand others and resolve to work with them regardless of whether goals or interests are shared. The process of working toward a common goal is called collaboration.
The first statement is false, the second true
A change in behavior depends upon this/these factor(s):
knowledge, beliefs, values, and compliance
Informing and motivating people to adopt healthy behaviors is termed:
Which of the following is an accurate representation of a current dental public health workforce issue?
Ethnic representation in the dental public health workforce does not mirror representation in the population served to public health programs
Although fluoridation is the only community health issue that is voted upon, the target goal of the Healthy People 2020 for fluoridation is _____ of community water supplies.
What organization monitors health issues on a global state?
World Health Organization
When fulfilling the administrator role, the dental public health hygienist…..
develops and coordinates public oral health programs
State dental public units originally developed as a result of the:
Maternal and Child Health grants to states
The adjustment of fluoride content in a community water supply in the most effective method of preventing dental caries in the population because fluoridation:
Serves more people than other methods
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is arranged in ______.
lower to higher level needs
Which organization has developed competency statements specifically for the newly graduated dental hygienist?
American Dental Hygienists’ Association
The primary difference between public health practice and private practice is:
the community is the client, rather than an individual
Community water fluoridation is especially beneficial for which target population?
those with socioeconomic levels
When a patient comes to a dental office, the first procedure is an examination. The first step in a public health
Landmark reports suggest that the current dental care system in the United States ____.
does not ensure oral health care for every citizen
Which of the following persons is least likely to have difficulty accessing dental care?
A 59-year old state government worker
(T/F) Medicare, Title XVIII of the Social Security Act, covers medical care and dental care for people aged 65 and older dental care are included in this coverage.
What is the primary department of the federal government that oversees public health activities at the national level?
Department of Health and Human Services
The fundamental requirement for all health information given to consumers is that it must be:
Accurate in content
When dental health is neglected, it is largely because of:
Minimal inherent value to oral health
The only valid opposition ever utilized in relation to fluoridating public water supplies was:
a violation of personal freedom
The five-dimensional health model includes all of the following EXCEPT:
Although the U.S Surgeon General’s Report was published in 2000, Dr. Fones started dental hygiene in the early 1900’s based on the premise that dental health affects______.
a person's total health
Over the last decade, most states have experienced the scope of which type of practice?
The science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental hygiene through community efforts is termed:
Dental Public Health
________ are most effective in reducing pit and fissure decay when remaining in the tooth surface.
(T/F) Fluoridation has several mechanisms for caries inhibition included are enhancement of remineralization enamel. Inhibit glycolysis, incorporation of fluoride into the enamel hydroxyapatite crystal, and bactericidal action.
What is the optimal fluoride concentration in a water supply?
Dental hygienists have the ability to improve total health by
preventing dental diseases
In what roles might a public health dental hygienist participate in professionally?
All of the answers are correct
(advocate or children, educator or researcher, administer or manager)
(T/F) Fluoride is taken up at the tooth surface from both fluoridated drinking water and topical application.
Factors affecting dental care delivery include which of the following?
access issues and the development of the dental hygiene profession
Which of the following is NOT a true statement?
Less than 200 school hours are lost to dental related illness each year
The controlled clinical trials of water fluoridation began in:
frequency of distribution plotted on an x-y graph resulting in a pictorial representation of data.
Score that occurs most frequently (happens the most)
Divides the distribution of scores into two equal part; the middle.
average of scores; add all numbers up and divide by number of scores
the square root of the sample variance; the bigger the range of SD the wider the curve (think bell curve); how far things are from the mean.
the mean, median, and mode are all in the same place/represent the same number (basically same as standard deviation)
probability value. Used when testing hypothesis, refers to the probability that a condition would happen by chance. Standard of acceptability is 1 out of 20 or a p-value of < 0.05. (a p-value greater than 0.05 will negatively affect the study results).
facilitator led group discussion; usually 5-10 people; 60-90 minute group discussion; interaction encouraged; not a decision making group.
Health Belief Model:
In order to display a readiness to take action to avoid a disease or act in a preventive manner, an individual need to believe that he or she is susceptible or vulnerable, the disease has serious consequences the behavior is beneficial and the behavior is important.; when individuals have accurate information, they will make better choices.
Social Learning Theory:
Assumes people and their environment are constantly interacting; People learn through experience and observation; Behavior changes encouraged or discouraged due to reactions of others; Self-efficacy promotes higher motivation to overcome obstacles
Step five: self-actualization: morality, creativity, lack of prejudice
Social Marketing Theory:
increase public awareness and acceptance of disease prevention
anticipatory planning, objective, instruction/info, guided practices and activities, closure.
promoting the well-being of individuals and the public (do good) example: doing dental screenings
deals with the PATIENT. Patients have the right to informed consent and full disclosure of treatment so they can make informed choices about their care; right of privacy; freedom of choice
Code of Ethics:
to achieve high levels of ethical consciousness, decision making and practice by members of a profession. (remember EPD= ethical, decision making and profession)
Culturally competent systems, agencies, or individuals are characterized by acceptance and respect for difference. There is ongoing self-assessment regarding culture, expansion of knowledge , and adaptation of service models to better meet the needs of specific populations.
doing the right thing
when there are two or more courses of action to take
deals with the PRACTITIONER (do no harm). Provides services that protect the patient from harm. i.e.: giving the patient glasses to wear.
Occupational safety and health administration- responsible for developing universal and standard precaution protocols for employees to prevent them from contracting disease through blood and/or other body fluids. Protects the worker.
Health Insurance Portability and accountability act- maintains patient confidentiality; done electronically needs to be signed once but shown every 3 years.
family medical leave act; created to assist employees in balancing the needs of their families with the demands of their jobs.
failure to do what a reasonable person would do; includes standard if care and duty.