BIO UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE

  1. 2 OF THE SAME ALLELES FOR A GENE
    HOMOZYGOUS
  2. 2 DIFFERENT ALLELES FOR A GENE
    HETEROZYGOUS
  3. UNITS OF A SPECIFIC NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE RESIDING ON CHROMOSOMES THAT CODE FOR A SPECIFIC PROTEIN
    GENE
  4. ALTERNATIVE VERSIONS OF A GENE THAT MAY PRODUCE A DISTINCT PATTERN- DETERMINE GENOTYPE
    ALLELE
  5. 1-22; 2 OF THE SAME CHROMOSOME, 1 FROM EACH PARENT
    HOMOLOGOUS PAIR
  6. AREA OF THE CHROMOSOME THE GENE RESIDES
    LOCUS
  7. PHYSICAL TRAIT OR APPEARANCE OF AN ORGANISM
    PHENOTYPE
  8. 2 ALLELES FOR A SINGLE GENE IN AN INDIVIDUAL; DICTATES PHENOTYPE
    GENOTYPE
  9. PREDICTS THE ALLELE COMPOSITION OF OFFSPRING FROM A CROSS B/WN INDIVIUALS OF KNOWN GENETIC MAKEUP
    PUNNETT SQUARE
  10. HETEROZYGOUS PHENOTYPE THAT THE DOMINANT ALLELE COMPLETELY SUPPRESSES THE RECESSIVE ONE
    COMPLETE DOMINANCE
  11. one allele is not completely dominant over the other (blend) heterozygous condition somewhere in between
    (flowers…red CROSSED W/white=pink)
    INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
  12. How many chromosomes do humans have? Where do they come from? How many come from each parent?
    46; PARENTS; 23
  13. What does diploid mean?
    2 SETS OF CHROMOSOMES
  14. WHAT DOES HAPLOID MEAN?
    HALF SETS OF CHROMOSOMES
  15. Where are genes found?
    CHROMSOMES
  16. What do genes code for?
    PROTEINS
  17. What is an individual’s genotype?
    3
    WHAT ALLELES YOU HAVE; 2 ALLELES FOR A SINGLE GENE; DOMINANT OR RECESSIVE
  18. How does an individual’s genotype correlate with their phenotype?
    GENOTYPE DICTATES PHENOTYPE
  19. What are Mendel’s Laws?
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. LAW OF SEGREGATION
    • 2. LAW OF INDEPENDANT ASSORTMENT
  20. 1 OF MENDELS LAWS WHERE 2 ALLELES FOR A GENE SEGREGATE DURING MEIOSIS, SO 1/2 THE GAMETES CARRY 1 ALLELE & THE OTHER 1/2 CARRY THE OTHER
    LAW OF SEGREGATION
  21. ONE OF MENDELS LAWS WHERE THE ALLELES LOCATED ON DIFFERENT CHROMOSOMES ARE INHERITED INDEPENDANT FROM EACHOTHER
    LAW OF INDEPENDANT ASSORTMENT
  22. 1 ALLELE THAT IS DOMINANT AND ONE ALLELE THAT IS RECESSIVE, BUT THE DOMINANT ONE TAKES OVER
    complete dominance
  23. NEITHER ALLELE DOMINATES OVER THE OTHER. I.E. BLOOD TYPE
    codominance
  24. ALLELES AREN'T DOMINANT OR RECESSIVE RESULTING IN A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT PHENOTYPE; BLEND OF THE 2
    incomplete dominance
  25. LINKED TO CHROMOSOME 23, USUALLY APPEARING ON THE X CHROMOSOME
    sex-linked inheritance
  26. rolltonguepunnett_w640
    % OF ROLLERS? NON-ROLLERS?
    75%; 25%
  27. Describe in detail each component of the cell theory.
    there are 5
    • 1. NEW CELLS COME FROM PRE-EXISTING CELLS- THERMODYNAMICS
    • 2. CELLS ARE THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF STRUCTURE
    • 3. CELLS ARE THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF STURCTURE AND ORGANIZATION
    • 4. CELLS CONTAIN HEREDITARY INFO- DNA
    • 5. ALL ENERGY FLOW OCCURS IN THE CELL
  28. LIGHT IS FOCUSED ON A SPECIMEN BY THE GLASS CONDENSER LENS; THE IMAGE IS THEN MAGNIFIED BY OBJECTIVE & OCULAR LENS TO PROJECT TO THE EYE
    How does a light microscope work?
  29. What types of light microscopes are there?
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. COMPOUND LIGHT
    • 2. CONFOCAL LIGHT
  30. MICRSCOPE THAT USES E- TO LIGHT UP, THEN E- TRANSMIT THROUGH THE SPECIMEN TO COMPUTER SCREEN
    How does an electron microscope work?
  31. What types of electron microscopes are there?
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON
    • 2. SCANNING ELECTRON
  32. What other names can the cell membrane be called?
    PLASMA MEMBRANE
  33. What are the functions of the cell membrane?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. SELECTIVE PERMEABLE BARRIER
    • 2. COMMUNICATING
    • 3. STRUCTURE AND SHAPE
  34. What are the main differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
    THERE ARE 5
    • 1. PRO- NO MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLES
    • 2. PRO- ALL UNICELLULAR; EU- BOTH
    • 3. PRO- CIRCULAR CHROMOSOME; EU-LINEAR
    • 4. PRO- 1 CHOMOSOME; EU- 2-4
    • 5. PRO- NO NUCLEUS; EU- NUCLEUS
  35. What organelles are thought to have arisen from endosymbiosis
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. MITOCHONDRIA
    • 2. CHLOROPLAST
  36. 2 LIVING ORGANISMS COME TOGETHER AS 1 BY WRAPPING OR ENGULFING AROUND THE OTHER CELL ALLOWING THE OTHER CELL TO STAY INSIDE FOR ENERGY
    Endosymbiosis theory
  37. WHAT DO ANIMALS CELLS HAVE THAT PLANTS CELLS DON'T HAVE?
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. LYSOSOMES
    • 2. CENTRIOLES
  38. WHAT DO PLANTS CELLS HAVE THAT ANIMALS CELLS DON'T?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. CHLOROPLASTS
    • 2. CELL WALL
    • 3. CENTRAL VACUOLES
  39. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE HAS A JELLY AND STICKY OUTSIDE AND IS USED FOR ADHESION?
    Capsule
  40. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS MADE FROM PEPTIDOGLYCAN AND PROTECTS AND USED FOR STRUCTURE AND SHAPE?
    CELL WALL
  41. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS THE PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER THAT SURROUNDS THE ENTIRE CELL THAT IS USED FOR SELECTIVE PERMEABILITY?
    CELL MAMBRANE
  42. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS EVERYTHING FLOATING AROUND THE CELL CYTOSOLE+ SOLIDS; WHERE CHEMICAL REACTIONS TAKE PLACE?
    CYTOPLASM
  43. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS NOT MEMBRANE BOUND, HAS 70s, AND BUILDS PROTEINS?
    RIBOSOMES
  44. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS A BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, AND HOLDS DNA?
    NUCLEOID
  45. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE IS THE DNA?
    CIRCULAR
  46. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS TAIL LIKE AND ALLOWS MOVEMENT? AND CAN BE 1 OR MANY?
    FLAGELLA
  47. IN A PROKARYOTE WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS COMPOSED OF PROTEIN FILAMENTS, AND SUPPORTS AND ALLOWS MOVEMENT?
    CYTOSKELTON
  48. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128H?
    FIMBRIAE
  49. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 A?
    FLAGELLA
  50. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 B?
    CYTOPLASM
  51. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 C?
    RIBOSOME
  52. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 D?
    NUCLEOID
  53. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 E?
    PLASMA MEMBRANE
  54. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 F?
    CELL WALL
  55. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 G?
    CYTOSKELETON
  56. prokaryote_cell_parts-14B6234911B7F8B3128 I?
    CAPSULE
  57. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLE W/PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERS, AND HOUSES THE DNA & RIBOSOMES?
    NUCLEUS
  58. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS A BALL OF PROTEIN NOT MEMBRANE BOUND THAT BUILDS RIBOSOMES?
    NUCLEOLUS
  59. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE HAS 2 PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERS AND SEPARATES THE DNA TRANSCRIPTION TO TRANSLATION?
    NUCLEAR ENVELOPE OR NUCLEAR MEMBRANE
  60. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE ARE CHANNELS OR OPENINGS THAT ALLOWS rRNA AND OTHER SUBSTANCES IN AND OUT OF THE NUCLEUS?
    NUCLEAR PORES
  61. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS DNA MOLECULES WRAPPED AROUND PROTEINS THEN BUDLED AND CONDENSE AND REINFORCES DNA?
    CHROMATIN
  62. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS MADE OF PROTEIN AND NUCELIC ACID THAT BOUNDS AND CARRIES GENES?
    CHROMOSOMES
  63. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE ENCLOSES COMPARTMENTS INCLUDING THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE, ER, GOLGI, LYSOSOMES, TRANSPORT VESICLES, AND CELL MEMBRANE; PROTEIN HIGHWAY TO TRANSPORT PROTEINS
    ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM
  64. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE HAS RIBOSOMES STUCK TO THE OUTSIDE TO MAKE IT ROUGH, AND ALSO MODIFIES PROTEINS, ADDS CARBS AND PHOSPHATE GROUPS, AND IS A TRANSPORT VESICLE USING IT'S OWN MEMBRANE
    ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
  65. 3 THINGS THAT THE ROUGH ER DOES
    • 1. MODIFIES PROTEINS
    • 2. ADDS CARBS AND PHOSPHATE GROUPS
    • 3. MAKES TRANSPORT VESICLES OUT OF ITS OWN MEMBRANE
  66. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE HAS A SMOOTH SURFACE, IS CURVED AND TUBULAR, AND IS USED FOR DETOXIFICATION, GLYCOGEN BROKEN DOWN INTO GLUCOSE, FORMS LIPIDS AND STEROIDS, AND STORES CALCIUM IONS?
    SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
  67. WHAT 4 THINGS DOES SMOOTH ER DO?
    • 1. DETOX
    • 2. BREKA DOWN GLYCOGEN INTO GLUCOSE
    • 3. FORMS LIPIDS AND STEROIDS
    • 4. STORES CALCIUM IONS
  68. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS COMPOSED OF CISTERNAE AND VESICLES AND SORTS, PACKS, AND TAGS PROTEINS FROM THE ROUGH ER?
    GOLGI APPARATUS
  69. WHAT ARE FOLDS IN A MEMBRANE?
    CRISTAE
  70. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS NEAREST TO THE ER AND IS THE RECEIVING SIDE OF THE GOLGI?
    CISTERNAE CIS
  71. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS IN THE MIDDLE OF THE GOLGI, WHERE THE PROTEINS ARE MODIFIED/SORTED/PACKED?
    MEDIAL REGION
  72. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS AT THE END OF THE GOLGI, AND SHIPS THE PROTEINS?
    TRANS REGION
  73. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS MADE OF MEMBRANE SACS FILLED W/ENZYMES FUSED TO PHAGOSOMES AND IS USED TO DIGEST/HYDROLYZE MACROMOLECULES?
    LYSOSOMES
  74. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS MADE OF rRNA AND PROTEIN, 70s, IS ATTACHED TO THE RER, AND BUILDS PROTEINS FOR EXPORT OUTSIDE THE CELL BY EXOCYTOSIS?
    BOUND RIBOSOMES
  75. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS MADE OF rRNA AND PROTEIN, FLOATS FREELY IN CYTOSOL, AND BUILDS PROTEINS FOR USE INSIDE THE CELL?
    FREE RIBOSOMES
  76. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS COMPARTMENTALIZED,THAT FUSES W/THE LYSOSOME TO AID IN DIGESTION?
    PHAGOSOME
  77. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS 2 MEMBRANES, CONTAINS LOTS OF ENZYMES, TAKES IN ENERGY RICH MOLECULES BROKEN DOWN IN CYTOSOL AND MAKES ATP BY CELLULAR RESPIRATION?
    MITOCHONDRION
  78. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS THE FOLDS OR CORNERS OF THE MITOCHONDRIA MEMBRANE, USED TO INCREASE SURFACE AREA?
    CRISTAE
  79. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS THE AREA B/WN THE FOLDS IN MITOCHONDRIA INNER MEMBRANE THAT CONTAINS RIBOSOMES AND DNA
    MATRIX
  80. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS THE DOUBLE MEMBRANE FOUND IN PLANTS CELLS WHERE PHOTOSYNTHESIS OCCURS?
    CHLOROPLASTS
  81. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IN A PLANT CELL WHERE THE LIGHT ENERGY IS CONVERTED INTO CHEMICAL ENERGY IN THE CHLOROPLAST? LOOK PANCAKES, FLATTENED MEMBRANEOUS SAC?
    THYLAKOID
  82. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS THE LIQUID SPACE AROUND THE THYKALOID IN CHLOROPLAST WHERE CHEMICAL ENERGY IS USED TO MAKE CARBOHYDRATES?
    STROMA
  83. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS A SINGLE MEMBRANE COMPARTMENT CONTAINING SPHERICAL ENZYMES AND ACCUMULATES TOXIC PEROXIDES AND BREAKS THEM DOWN?
    PEROXISOME
  84. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS MEMBRANE BOUND, HUGE IN A PLANT CELL, THAT IS USED FOR STORAGE, STRUCTURE, REPRODUCTION, OR CATABOLISM?
    CENTRAL VACUOLE
  85. WHAT 4 FUNCTIONS DOES A CENTRAL VACUOLE HAVE?
    • 1. STORAGE
    • 2. STRUCTURE
    • 3. REPRODUCTION
    • 4. CATABOLISM
  86. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS USED FOR SUPPORT, STRUCTURE, POSITION, MOVEMENT, CYTOPLASMIC STREAMING, AND ANCHORS THE CELL? MADE OF FILIMENTS AND COMPOSED OF PROTEINS?
    CYTOSKELETON
  87. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS 7nm/ OCCURS IN BUNDLES, COMPOSED OF ACTIN, AND HELPS CELL MOVE/ DETERMINE AND STABILIZE CELL SHAPE THOUGH DYNAMIC INSTABILITY?
    MICROFILAMENTS
  88. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS 8-12nm/ MIDDLE SIZE PROTEIN FILAMENT/TOUGH LIKE ROPE/ MADE OF 8 STRANDS/ ANCHORS THE CELL AND NUCLEUS/ RESISTS TENSION/ MAINTAINS RIGIDITY/ I.E. SKIN CELLS
    INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
  89. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE 25nm/ LARGEST PROTEIN FILAMENT/ UNBRANCHED HOLLWO TUBE/ COMPOSED OF α-TUBULIN & β-TUBULIN/ FORMS FRAMEWORK FOR MOTOR PROTEINS TO MOVE STRUCTURES W/IN THE CELL/ GIVES STRUCTURE & SHAPE/ AIDS IN CELL DIVISION/ FORMS THE SKELETON OF THE FLAGELLA & CILIA
    MICROTUBULES
  90. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS 9 SETS OF TRIPLET MICROTUBULES IN A RING/ PRODUCE THE MICROTUBULES FOR CELL AND CHROMOSOME DIVISION.
    CENTRIOLE
  91. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS A PAIR OF CENTRIOLES/ MICROTUBULE ORGANIZATION CENTER.
    CENTROSOME
  92. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS .25nm/ OCCUR IN THOUSANDS OUTSIDE THE CELL/ USED FOR MOVEMENT OF FLUID OVER A STATIONARY CELL
    CILIA
  93. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE IS RIGID/SEMI-PERMEABLE/ FOUND ONLY IN PLANTS/ PROTECTS, MAINTAINS SHAPE AND PREVENTS EXCESS UPTAKE OF WATER?
    CELL WALL
  94. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE HAS A 9+2 ARRANGEMENT W/2 UNFUSED MICROTUBULES IN THE CENTER/ 100-200 nm LONG/ CAN COME SINGLE OR IN PAIR/ USED FOR PROPULSION AND MOVEMENT
    FLAGELLUM
  95. IN A EUKARYOTE CELL WHAT STRUCTURE OR ORGANELLE HAS A PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER, AND IS SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE, COMMUNICATES, AND IS USED FOR STRUCTURE AND SHAPE?
    CELL MEMBRANE
  96. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 A?
    SMOOTH ER
  97. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 B?
    RIBOSOMES
  98. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 C?
    CYTOPLASM
  99. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 D?
    MITOCHONDRIA
  100. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 E?
    LYSOSOME
  101. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 F?
    GOLGI APPARATUS
  102. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 G?
    ROUGH ER
  103. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 K?
    NUCLEUS
  104. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 K1?
    NUCLEAR PORE
  105. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 K2?
    CHROMATIN
  106. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 K3?
    NUCLEAR ENVELOPE
  107. eukaryote_unlabeled-1503F1391663D1B9181 K4?
    NUCLEOLUS
  108. plant%20cells A?
    CHLOROPLAST
  109. plant%20cells B?
    CENTRAL VACUOLE
  110. plant%20cells AB?
    PLASMA MEMBRANE
  111. plant%20cells AE?
    CELL WALL
  112. plant%20cells BD?
    PLASMODESMATA
  113. What are the types of filaments that make up the cytoskeleton?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. MICROFILAMENTS
    • 2. INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
    • 3. MICROTUBULES
  114. What are the differences between the filaments?
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. SIZE
    • 2. FUNCTION
  115. What is the function of flagella?
    MOVEMENT/PROPULSION
  116. What is the function of CILIA?
    PROPULSION OF FLUID OVER A STATIONARY CELL
  117. What is the internal structure of flagella/cilia in a eukaryote?
    THERE ARE 6
    • 1. 9+2 DOUBLETS
    • 2. 2 INFUSED MICROTUBLES IN CENTER
    • 3. OUTER DYNEIN ARM
    • 4. INNER DYNEIN ARM
    • 5. NEXIN LINK
    • 6. SPOKE
  118. How do animal cells stay together?
    EXTRA CELLULAR MATRIX
  119. WHAT ARE THE 3 COMPONENTS OF THE EXTRA CELLULAR MATRIX?
    • 1. COLLAGEN
    • 2. PROTEOGLYCANS
    • 3. FIBRONECTIN
  120. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE EXTRA CELLULAR MATRIX?
    THERE ARE 4
    • 1. HOLDS CELLS TOGETHER IN TISSUES
    • 2. CONTRIBUTES TO THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TISSUES
    • 3. FILTERS MATERIALS PASSING THROUGH
    • 4. ORIENT CELLS MOVEMENT IN EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
  121. types of cell junctions between animal cells
    • 1. GAP JUNCTION
    • 2. DESMOSOMES
    • 3. TIGHT JUNCTION
  122. THE PROTEIN LINED CHANNEL THAT ALLOWS THE PASSAGE OF MATERIAL THROUGH THE MEMBRANE?
    GAP JUNCTION
  123. THE STRONG MORE STRUCTURAL CELL JUNCTION THAT HAS PROTEIN HOOKS, LINKING CELLS TO INTERACT W/INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS?
    DESMOSOMES
  124. CELL JUNCTION THAT PROTEINS ARE TIGHTLY BOUND FORMING A BARRIER?
    TIGHT JUNCTION
  125. PROTEIN THAT MICROFILAMENTS ARE COMPOSED OF?
    ACTIN
  126. PROTEIN THAT MICROTUBULES ARE COMPOSED OF α AND β?
    TUBULIN
  127. PATTER OR ARRANGEMENT OF THE MICROTUBULES OF THE FLAGELLA AND CILIA?
    9+2
  128. PROTEIN LINK THAT CONNECTS THE DOUBLETS AND ALLOWS FLEXIBILTY INSIDE THE FLAGELLA?
    NEXIN
  129. THESE INTERACT W/MICROTUBULES, ALLOWING MOVEMENT OF VESICLES AND SOME ORGANELLES, FEET WALKING W/ATP
    MOTOR PROTEINS
  130. IN ANIMALS CELLS, THE PAIR OF 9 SETS OF TRIPLET MICROTUBULES IN A RING
    CENTRIOLES
  131. THE MOST ABUNDANT GLYCOPROTEIN IN THE ECM
    COLLAGEN
  132. WOVEN NETWORK IN THE ECM OF A MOLECULE CONSISTING OF SMALL CORE PROTEIN W/MANY CARBOHYDRATES ATTACHED
    PROTEOGLYCAN
  133. AN EXTRACELLULAR GLYCOPROTEIN SECRETED BY ANIMAL CELLS THAT HELP THEM ATTACH TO THE ECM
    FIBRONECTIN
  134. AN INTEGRATED RECEPTOR PROTEIN IN THE ECM W/2 SUBUNITS
    INTEGRIN
  135. membrane-14471FFB38D03CA51C6 A?
    GLYCOPROTEIN
  136. membrane-14471FFB38D03CA51C6 B?
    INTEGRAL PROTEIN
  137. membrane-14471FFB38D03CA51C6 E?
    STEROID/CHOLESTEROL
  138. membrane-14471FFB38D03CA51C6 F?
    PERIPHERAL PROTEIN
  139. membrane-14471FFB38D03CA51C6 C?
    PHOSPHOLIPID
  140. What is the function OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS?
    MAINTAIN BARRIER B/WN CELLS, TRANSPORT
  141. What is the function PERIPHERAL PROTEINS?
    HELP AID INTEGRAL PROTEINS
  142. What is the function OF INTEGRAL PROTEIN?
    THERE ARE 4
    • 1. TRANSPORT ENZYMES
    • 2. SIGNALING
    • 3. CELL RECOGNITION
    • 4. CELL JOINING TO ECM & CYTOSKELETON
  143. What is the function OF GLYCOLIPIDS?
    THERE ARE 2
    CONTRIBUTE ENERGY/ MARKER FOR CELLULAR RECOGNITION
  144. What is the function OF GLYCOPROTEINS?
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. SIGNALING AND RECONGNITION
    • 2. ALLOW CELL ADHESION
  145. What is the function OF CHOLESTEROL?
    INCREASE FLUIDITY OF THE MEMBRANE
  146. Describe in detail the characteristic of the fluid mosaic model.
    THE PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERS ARE FLUID BECAUSE THEY ARE BONDED WITH WEAK INTERACTIONS, ALLOWING SELECTIVE PEREAMBILITY, BECAUSE THEY ARE AMPHIPATHIC WITH FATS, PROTEINS, AND CARBS FLOATING AND BOBBING.
  147. What happens in a cell membrane if it gets too cold?
    USE OF UNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS TO STAY LIQUID
  148. What happens in a cell membrane if it gets too HOT?
    USE OF SATURATED FATTY ACIDS TO STAY VISCOUS.
  149. ONLY ALLOWING CERTAIN THINGS TO GET THROUGH
    SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE
  150. TRANSPORT NOT USING ATP
    PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  151. TRANSPORT REQUIRING ATP
    ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  152. [HIGH]⇨[LOW] NO ENERGY REQUIRED
    DIFFUSION
  153. What factors affect the rate of diffusion of a substance?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. SIZE
    • 2. TEMP
    • 3. CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
  154. MOLECULE THAT IS SMALL AND NON-POLAR  THAT CAN SIMPLY MOVE THROUGH THE PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
    simple diffusion
  155. MOLECULE TRANSPORT GOING FROM [HIGH]⇨[LOW] W/O ATP
    PASSIVE TRANSPORT
  156. MOLECULE TRANSPORT GOING FROM [LOW]⇨[HIGH] REQUIRING ATP
    ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  157. GOING FROM A [HIGH] GRADIENT TO A [LOW] GRADIENT TO ACHIEVE EQUILIBRIUM.
    DIFFUSION
  158. DIFFUSION OF WATER ACROSS THE MEMBRANES, THROUGH PROTEIN CHANNELS CALLED AQUAPORINS.
    OSMOSIS
  159. THE PROTEIN CHANNELS THAT WATTER USE FOR OSMOSIS
    AQUAPORINS
  160. HIGH SOLUTE IN WATER; ANIMAL CELL WILL SHRIVEL; PLANT CELL WILL PLASMOLYZE
    HYPERTONIC
  161. LOW SOLUTE IN WATER; ANIMAL CELL WILL LYSE; PLANT CELL WILL GET TURGID
    HYPOTONIC
  162. WHEN THE RATE OF OSMOSIS IS EQUAL =
    = SOLUTE; ANIMAL CELL IS NORMAL; PLANT CELL IS FLACCID
    ISOTONIC
  163. WATER WILL ALWAYS DIFFUSE TO WHERE THE __________ AMOUNT OF SOLUTE IS.
    HIGHEST
  164. FACILITATED DIFFUSION THAT IS THE DIFFUSION OF WATER ACROSS THE MEMBRANES, THROUGH THE PROTEIN CHANNELS CALLED AQUAPORINS.
    OSMOSIS
  165. EXAMPLE OF SIMPLE DIFFUSON
    CO2 WANTS TO MOVE OUT. IT IS SMALL AND NON-POLAR.
  166. the pressure of water against the inside wall of a plant cell.
    TURGOR PRESSURE
  167. WHEN A LARGE, POLAR, OR IONIC MOLECULE PASSING THROUGH USING A PROTEIN CHANNEL WHAT IS IT USING?
    FACILITATED DIFFUSION
  168. VOLTAGE ACROS THE MEMBRANE, CREATED WHEN THERE IS AN IMBALANCE OF IONS ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE
    MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
  169. 2 WAYS A GATED PROTEIN CHANNEL FUNCTIONS
    • 1. LIGAND ION CHANNEL
    • 2. VOLTAGE ION CHANNEL
  170. ANY MOLECULE BOUND TO A PROTEIN CHANNEL, TO CHANGE THE SHAPE, AND THEN THE GATE WILL OPEN
    LIGAND ION CHANNEL
  171. CHANNEL USING ELECTRICITY W/MEMBRANE POTENTIAL, DUE TO CHARGE IMBALANCE INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE MEMBRANE WILL TRIGGER THE GATE CHANNEL TO OPEN
    VOLTAGE ION CHANNEL
  172. WHAT IS A TRANSPORT OF POLAR OR CHARGED MOLECULES; FUNCTIONS SIMILAR TO ENZYME BECAUSE IT IS A PROTEIN W/A BINDING SITE THAT WILL ONLY FIT A SPECIFIC MOLECULE 1 AT A TIME
    CARRIER PROTEIN CHANNEL
  173. WHEN A CARRIER MOLECULE IS ALL FILLED UP WITH MOLECULES IT BECOMES _______.
    SATURATED
  174. DIRECT USE OF ATP TO PUMP MOLECULES IN AND OUT OF THE CELL AGAINST THE GRADIENT CONCENTRATION [LOW]⇨[HIGH] NEEDS ATP
    PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT
  175. SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP THAT USES MEMBRANE POTENTIAL TO FORCE MORE SODIUM OUT AND PUMP LESS POTASSIUM IN, THEN STARTS ALL OVER AGAIN IS AN EXAMPLE OF ________.
    ELECTROGENIC PUMP
  176. 1 MOLECULE FOLLOWING ANOTHER MOLECULE INTO THE MEMBRANE INDIRECTLY USING ATP, AFTER PRIMARY ACTIVE TRANSPORT HAS ESTABLISHED THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT.
    CO-TRANSPORT
  177. EXAMPLE OF CO-TRANSPORT
    SUCROSE WITH H+
  178. WHAT ARE THE 3 TYPES OF ENDOCYTOSIS?
    • 1. PHAGOCYTOSIS
    • 2. PINOCYTOSIS
    • 3. RECEPTOR-MEDIATED
  179. WHEN PART OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE ENGULFS A LARGE PARTICLE LIKE FOOD OR VIRUSES OR A CELL; EATS THE CELL
    PHAGOCYTOSIS
  180. WHEN PART OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE ENGULFS FLUID AND DISSOLVES SUBSTANCES; DRINKS CELLS
    PINOCYTOSIS
  181. WHEN PART OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE ENGULFS A SPECIFIC MACRO MOLECULE.
    "FISHING" FOR SPECIFIC MOLECULES
    RECEPTOR MEDIATED
  182. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE B/WN RECEPTOR-MEDIATED AND PHAGOCYTOSIS AND PINOCYTOSIS?
    RECEPTOR-MEDIATED WANTS SPECIFIC MACROMOLECULES
  183. THE PROCESS BY WHICH CELLS SECRETE SUBSTANCES OUT OF THE PLASMA MEMBRANE BY TRANSPORT VESICLES.
    EXOCYTOSIS
  184. WHY ARE MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS THOUGHT TO HAVE RISEN FROM ENDOSYMBIOSIS THEORY?
    DOUBLE MEMBRANE AND CIRCULAR DNA
Author
ccab1979
ID
338728
Card Set
BIO UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE
Description
BIOLOGY UNIT 3 STUDY GUIDE
Updated