1. leaves have blunt tip
    stipules at node
    stalked buds
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    • Alnus serrulata (finely saw-toothed)
    • Betulaceae (Birch); smooth alder
    • *Fruit: nutlet or samara
    • Fixes Nitrogen!
    • planted in wetland restoration by pushing branches into ground
  2. smooth, fluted (striated) bark
    alt, simple, double serrated, glabrous leaves
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    • Carpinus caroliniana (from Carolina)
    • Betulaceae (Birch); musclewood
    • *Fruit: nutlet (tiny w/ 3-pronged bract)
    • Extremely dense wood
    • used for splitting wedges and tool handles
    • occasionally used in landscaping
  3. heart-shaped leaves
    dark 4" pod w/ points at both ends
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    • Cercis canadensis (from Canada)
    • Leguminosae or Fabaceae (Pea family)
    • *Fruit: legume
    • commonly used in landscaping
  4. shrub in moist soils
    tan pith in light wood
    latex in leaf veins
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    • Cornus amomum
    • Cornaceae; silky dogwood
    • used in wetland restoration
  5. multi-stem
    Leaf accute(sharp)-accuminate(long tapered tip), pubescent both sides
    leaf size varies
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    • Corylus americana (of America)
    • Betulaceae (Birch); hazelnut
    • *Fruit: nut (filbert!)
    • eaten by wild turkey, songbirds, humans
  6. sloppy cobbles on bark
    leaves opposite, pinnately compound, 5-9 leaflets/leaf
    bud looks like phillips head screwdriver
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    • Fraxinus americana
    • Oleaceae; white ash
    • *Fruit: samara
    • dioecious
    • wood valuable commercially for furn, sports equip (hockey sticks, bats), long handled tools (hoes, rakes)
    • beavers eat inner bark (phloem)
    • sometimes used in landscaping

  7. evergreen, lanceolate leaf with sharp serrulate margin
    twigs green for many years
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    • Leucothoe fontanesiana
    • Ericaceae (Heath); dog-hobble
    • sometimes used in landscaping
  8. bark has flat ridges
    symmetric leaf
    hooked samara
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    • Liriodendron tulipifera (bearing tulips)
    • Magnoliaceae (Magnolia); yellow-poplar
    • *Fruit: aggregate of samaras
    • low seed viability (10%)
    • bee tree (dark honey)
    • wood sold as yellow-poplar, used in hardwood plywood, furn, and interior "plys" of pine plywood
    • songbirds eat fruit in winter
    • sometimes used in landscaping
  9. alt. umbrella leaves
    2-3" bud
    encircling stipular scar
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    • Magnolia tripetala (3-petaled)
    • Magnoliaceae (Magnolia); umbrella tree
    • *Fruit: aggregate of follicles
    • songbirds eat red fleshy seeds
  10. ski trails
    fat man wearing beret nut
    sinus doesn't extend 1/2 way from lobe to midvein
    leaves block a lot of light
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    • Quercus rubra (red)
    • Fagaceae; northern red oak
    • *Fruit: nut (acorn w/ flat cap)
    • extremely valuable lumber species (esp. in Western NC)
    • used for molding, furn, floors, pulp.
    • wildlife value similar to other red oaks
  11. evergreen, alt (look whorled) leaves
    distinct bracts around bud
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    • Rhododendron maximum (largest)
    • Ericaceae; rhododendron
    • fruit: capsule
    • foliage and bark poisonous to eat
    • smoke toxic
  12. small alt. leaves looked whorled
    ciliate margins
    broad spacing between branches(I think)
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    • Rhododendron sp.
    • Ericaceae; wild azalea
    • fruit; capsule
  13. shrub
    leaves alt. pinnately compound 5-9 leaflets
    fringed stipules
    twigs green for several years
    prickles point backwards
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    • Rosa multiflora (many-flowered)
    • Rosaceae; multiflora rose
    • *Fruit: achene (borne in a red hip)
    • Native to China
    • formerly planted as living fence, but escaped, invasive
    • provides nesting/escape for birds and small mammals
    • hips eaten in winter by deer, game birds, rabbits
    • hips can be brewed into tea.
  14. small tree
    dark "steel gray" bark
    often leaning
    leaves alt. simple, denticulate, fuzzy underneath
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    • Styrax grandifolius (large-leafed)
    • Styraceae; bigleaf snowbell, storax
    • Fruit: capsule
  15. Flat branches
    tiny, upside-down leaves parallel to twigs
    1" cone looks closed, even when open
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    • Tsuga canadensis (of Canada)
    • Pinaceae; eastern hemlock
    • *Fruit: cone w/ flat scales: ~1" long
    • wood has little commercial value today
    • used in landscaping
    • bark formerly used in tanning leather
  16. hemlock w/ non-flat branches
    1.5" cone
    cone looks more open when open (90 deg. scales)
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    • Tsuga caroliniana (of Carolina)
    • Pinaceae; Carolina hemlock
    • *Fruit: cone w/ flat scales, ~1.5" long
    • almost exclusive to western NC
  17. hemlock from west
    • Tsuga heterophylla (variously leaved)
    • Pinaceae; western hemlock
    • *Fruit: cone w/ flat scales (similar to eastern hemlock)
    • fast growing conifer in Pacific NW and inland Empire
    • wood commercially valuable: lumber and pulpwood
    • grown in plantations
Card Set
Lake Johnson II: higher fertility/moisture sites at Lake Johnson