When do personality traits become a disorder?
- rigid and inflexible
- contribute to maladaptive functioning
- impair functioning
- interfere with home, work, social
The totality of emotional and behavioral characteristics that are particular to a specific person and that remain somewhat stable and predictable over time.
Characteristics with which an individual is born or develops early in life. They influence the way in which he or she perceives and relates to the environment and are quite stable over time.
Personality development occurs in response to a number of biological and psychological influences.
- Experiential learning
- Social interaction
Name the three clusters of personality disorders and their characteristics
- Cluster A: odd or eccentric
- Cluster B: dramatic, emotional, or erratic
- Cluster C: anxious or fearful
Cluster A personality disorder are known for:
odd or eccentric
Cluster B personality disorder are known for:
dramatic, emotional, or erratic
Cluster C personality disorder are known for:
anxious or fearful
This cluster of personality disorders blame themselves for everything
This cluster of personality disorders project everything on everyone else
What personality disorders belong to Cluster A?
- a.Paranoid personality disorder
- b.Schizoid personality disorder
- c.Schizotypal personality disorder
What personality disorders belong to Cluster B?
- a.Antisocial personality disorder
- b.Borderline personality disorder
- c.Histrionic personality disorder
- d.Narcissistic personality disorder
What personality disorders belong to Cluster C?
- a.Avoidant personality disorder
- b.Dependent personality disorder
- c.Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Name some traits of Paranoid Personality Disorder
- People are always out to get them
- Constantly on guard
- Ready for any real or imagined threat
- Trusts no one
- Constantly tests the honesty of others
- Ideas of reference
- Delusions of reference
What do we need to respect in Paranoid Personality Disorder?
- approach in a very direct manner
- be careful not to startle
- do not touch
Predisposing factors of Paranoid Personality Disorder?
- Subject to early parental antagonism and harassment
Give examples of Ideas of reference and delusions of reference
- Ideas of reference: based on reality (at a party and thinks they are talking about me)
- Delusions of reference: not based on reality (at home thinking about work relationships)
Name some traits of Schizoid Personality Disorder
- Uneasy around people
- Inappropriately serious about everything
- difficulty acting in a light-hearted manner
- Emotionally detached
- Aloof and indifferent to others
- Emotionally cold
What do we need to respect with Schizoid Personality Disorder?
- Leave them alone – respect need to be alone
- Encourage socialization
Name some traits of Schizotypal Personality Disorder
- More eccentric
- Magical thinking
- Ideas of reference
- Bland and apathetic
- Lonely but would love a friend, but so afraid
- Tangentiality: don’t get to the end of what they are trying to say
- discomfort with personal affection and closeness
What do we need to respect with Schizotypal Personality Disorder?
- Do not disturb
- Can become psychotic under stress
When under extreme stress a Schizotypal Personality will become
Predisposing factors of Schizotypal Personality DO?
- May be abnormalities in temporal region and frontal lobe
Name some traits of Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Anti-societal rules
- without remorse
- They know right from wrong but don’t care
What do we respect in Antisocial Personality Disorders?
Stay away from them
Predisposing factors of Antisocial Personality DO?
- Genetic influence
- ADD or conduct disorder
- HX of abuse
- Parental issues
- Lacking in nurture
- Neurotransmitter dysfunction?
Name some traits of Borderline Personality Disorder
- Drama and chaos
- Manipulate – splitting
Predisposing factors of Borderline Personality DO?
- Neglect, emotional, sexual, verbal abuse as children
- Abandonment is their biggest fear
- Fixed in the rapprochement phase of development (16 to 24 months old). The child fails to achieve task of autonomy.
- Serotonergic defect (SSRI may help)
- First-degree familial connection
- Psychosocial – chaotic home, childhood trauma and abuse
What self-destructive behavior is common to see in Borderline Personality DO
Cutting: suicide attempt, attention seeking, to relieve anxiety, to feel something
Redirect to relieve anxiety – walks, bouncing ball, physical activity
Name some traits of Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Attention seeking – must be center of attention
- Seductive – hypersexual
- Exhibitionist – low cut tops, tight pants
- Highly distractible
- Easily influenced by others – want to be liked
- Difficulty forming close relationships
- Strongly dependent
- Somatic complaints – very common
What are some predisposing factors related to Histrionic Personality DO?
‒Possible link to the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems
‒Possible hereditary factor
‒Biogenetically determined temperament
‒Learned behavior patterns
Name some traits of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Exaggerated sense of self-worth
- Entitlement – inalienable right to receive special consideration
- Overly self-centered
- Mood - Grounded in grandiosity
- Lack empathy
- Lack humility
- Sensitive to criticism
- Fragile self-esteem
What are some predisposing factors related to Narcissistic Personality DO?
‒As children, fears, failures, or dependency needs were responded to with criticism, disdain, or neglect.
‒Parents were often narcissistic themselves.
‒Parents may have overindulged the child and failed to set limits on inappropriate behavior.
Name some traits of Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Social withdrawal
- Awkward and uncomfortable in social situation
- Desire for close relationship but fear them so much don’t get out there
- View others as critical and betraying
What can be done to help Avoidant Personality DO?
- Encourage groups and build self-esteem
- Suffer from anxiety and depression (SSRI's)
Name some traits of Dependent Personality Disorder
- Voice low
- Low self-worth, easily hurt by criticism
- Avoid responsibility
- Assume passive and submissive roles in relationships
- Will accept maltreatment from others
Name some traits of Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder
- Have obsession with things being in order
- Fear of things being out of order
- Work driven – devotion to productivity at the exclusion of personal pleasure
- Takes a long time to accomplish anything – because stuff needs to be in order
- Control, rigid, unbending
What is the difference between OCD and Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder?
OCD - a fear of contamination (obsessive thoughts and compulsive acts)
OCPD - fear of losing control
Cognitive / behavioral therapy may work on which cluster?
Dialectical behavior therapy may work on which cluster?
If stressed enough a Borderline will become?
What are some meds that may be used on patients with depression, anxiety, or exhibit a labile mood?
- mood stabilizers
High anxiety that leads to maladaptive use of defense mechanisms
Loss of contact with reality
Safety is extremely important with Borderline Personality DO because?
- They can hurt themselves or others may hurt them
- Redirect behaviors