Lecture 7 - Social Cognitive Aspects of Depression

  1. Major Depressive Disorder
    • depression is a disabling disorder that is associated with:
    • substantial emotional misery
    • severe interpersonal disruption
    • increased risk for physical illness and health
  2. what is an intrapsychic disorder
    • it exists within the mind or psyche
    • however, it can significantly disrupt the lives of those who are close to the sufferer
  3. who were the first to associate psychological/emotional factors with depression?
    abraham and freud
  4. Gender Differences in Depression
    • women are at a much higher risk for depression
    • average female to male ratio = 2:1
  5. Age Effects on Depression
    • appears more commonly in younger than older adults
    • younger generations are more prone to it
    • rates seem to be increasing most quickly in young men
  6. Models of Depression
    • life event model
    • behavioral model
    • cognitive model
    • interpersonal model
    • attribution-based model
    • evolutionary models
  7. Evolutionary model of Depression
    • nature’s way of telling you you’re barking up the wrong tree
    • those prone to depression out-reproduced those who did not
    • it serves as a negotiating tool to extract investment from others — post-partum depression
  8. Depression Threshold
    • experience depression only at functional times (ex. death of a loved one vs parking ticket)
    • those with clinical depression may have too sensitive of a threshold
  9. Depressive Realism
    • people who are depressed have lower opinion of themselves and their prospects of success
    • this assessment is more accurate, which helps us cut our losses and be more realistic
  10. Life Event Models — severe events vs less severe events
    • severe — events with marked or moderate long term threat -> related to onset of a depressive disorder
    • less severe — insufficient to elicit depression
  11. Life Event Models — additivity effects
    • severe life events have a greater effect if they are summed
    • less severe life events are insufficient to elicit depression even if they are summed
  12. Life Event Models — kindling
    • early occurrences of depression increase neurobiological sensitization
    • to the point where recurrent episodes are largely initiated by these neurobiological processes
    • in extreme versions, depression becomes autonomous and occurs independent of life stress
  13. Life Event Models — stress sensitization model
    • a major event is needed to trigger a first onset
    • less severe life events can initiate recurrent episodes
  14. Behavioral Models — response-contingent positive reinforcement + social skills
    • behavioral responses extinguish when individuals fail to receive positive reinforcement for them
    • loss of positive reinforcement leads to dysphoria
    • individuals with depression have poor social skills -> they are denied access to the reinforcing properties of social relationships
  15. Interpersonal Model of Depression
    • stressful life events lead to a display of depressive symptoms
    • these symptoms function to restore social support and gain reassurance regarding their self worth and acceptance
  16. Beck’s Cognitive Theory of Depression
    • depression results from activation of depressive self-schema
    • those with depression have dysfunctional schemas that lead to negative thoughts about the self, world, and the future = cognitive triad
  17. 5 Cognitive Distortions
    • all-or-nothing thinking— when situations are viewed in only two categories instead of an a continuum
    • selective abstraction — when negative details are focused on without taking into consideration the entire context
    • overgeneralization — sweeping judgements or predictions based on a single incident
    • emotional reasoning — one thinks something must be true because on feels it to be so
    • personalization — when the individual takes responsibility for the negative actions of others without considering more plausible explanations for their behaviors
  18. Attribution-Based Model of Depression
    • focused on depressed person’s expectations that they are helpless
    • learned helplessness theory
  19. Attribution-Based Model — pos. vs neg. events
    • positive events — specific unstable, external attributes
    • negative events — global, stable, and internal attributions, vulnerability factor to depression
Card Set
Lecture 7 - Social Cognitive Aspects of Depression
Exam 1, Lecture 7 - Social Cognitive Aspects of Depression