What are the two types of symptoms for schizophrenia?
active phase and residual phase symptoms
What are schizoaffective disorders?
schizophrenia + bipolar disorder or depression
Who was kraeplin?
- coined the term dementia praecox = premature madness
- described schizophrenia as a pattern of symptoms over time rather than a cluster of symptoms
- thought it was progressive and untreatable
Who was Eugene Bleuler?
- coined the term schizophrenia
- didn’t think deterioration was inevitable
- for him, schizophrenia = splitting of the different psychic functions
Unanticipated side effect of the term schizophrenia?
it is a term often confused with multiple personality disorder/dissociative identity disorder
lifetime morbid risk for schizophrenia?
At what age is schizophrenia highest for men and women?
- men = 20-24 years
- women = 25-29 years
Men vs women in schizophrenia
- men have an earlier onset and more severe course than women
- no sex difference
What does psychosis mean?
a state of losing touch with reality
psychotic symptoms include:
- formal thought disorder - disorganized thinking and speaking
what is the schizophrenia spectrum?
- refers to the marginal conditions
- something short of a clear case of the disorder
Bleuluer’s subtypes of schizophrenia
- paranoid (preoccupation with delusions or auditory hallucinations)
- catatonic (immobile, little motivation)
- undifferentiated (did not fall into either category but did not have mild form of illness)
what are positive symptoms?
symptoms that are characterizes by something being added to normal behavior or experience
what are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
- hallucinations (false perceptions such as things seen or heard that are not real or present)
- delusions (false belief about reality maintained spite of strong evidence to the contrary) — delusions of grandeur, delusions of persecution
what are negative symptoms?
symptoms that reflect an absence or deficit in normal functions
what are 4 negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
- blunted affect (reduction in the range of affective expression)
- flat affect (lack of emotional expression)
- alogia (poverty of speech)
- avolition (general lack of drive or motivation to pursue meaningful goals)
instrumental relationships? how are they affected by schizophrenia?
- they are task oriented and goal-driven — work and service relationships, like asking for directions, purchasing things in a store, etc
- those with schizophrenia show significant impairment in their instrumental relationships — frequently unable to finish school, etc
drift hypothesis for schizophrenia
the argument that illness causes one to have a downward shift in social class
social causation thesis for schizophrenia
- the argument that being in a lower social class is a contributor to the development of a mental illness
- opposes the drift hypothesis
Schizophrenia in men vs women?
- more benign for women
- women have later age of onset
- shorter and less frequent psychotic episodes
- women also show a better response to treatment
- milder range of interpersonal problems, better social functioning