Lecture 8 - substance related and addictive disorders

  1. What is tolerance?
    • a need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect
    • diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol
  2. What is withdrawal?
    alcohol or closely related substance is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms
  3. evolution of diagnosis of SUDs
    • DMS1 = suds grouped under sociopathic personality disturbances + paraphilias + antisocial personality disorder
    • DMS2 = small changes, removed sociopathic categorization
    • DSM3 = included tobacco/nicotine dependence for the first time
    • DSM3-R = distinction between abuse and dependence
    • DSM4 = social consequences moved from dependence criteria to abuse criteria
    • DSM5 = only included non-substance related addictions, previously included as an impulse control disorder
  4. Cloninger’s neurobiological model for SUDs
    • type 1 - later onset of alcohol problems
    • type 2 - earlier onset of alcohol problems, more severe
  5. Five clusters for clinical sub typing of SUDs
    • young adult subtype
    • functional subtype
    • intermediate familial subtype
    • young antisocial subtype
    • chronic severe subtype
  6. risk factors for addictive disorders?
    • family history — potentially stronger heritability for illicit drug use than for alcohol
    • level of response to alcohol — heritable mechanism influencing ones propensity to develop an alcohol disorder, lower response associated with family history, development of tolerance
    • expectancies — beliefs about anticipated effects of alcohol or other substance use, can predict initiation, progression, problem use, etc
    • cognitive distortions — gambler’s fallacy, chasing losses
    • peer influences
  7. cognitive distortions in gambling
    • overconfidence about one’s ability
    • illusory correlations — superstitions, pathological gamblers often believe that their personal luck will impact the outcome of gambling
    • interpretive control — heavy gamblers are more likely remember their wins than their losses
    • illusion of control — pathological gamblers are less able to distinguish between situations in which they do and do not have control
  8. Gender differences in addictive disorders
    • men consume greater quantities and abuse substances at higher rates
    • however the gap is narrowing slowly
    • women are more vulnerable to many physiological consequences of alcohol use and abuse — have higher BAC after consuming same amount of alcohol, develop liver disease more quickly, increased risk of breast cancer
  9. teratogenic effects of alcohol
    • fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) — physical and neuropsychological effects/deformities, a result of consuming significant amounts of alcohol during pregnancy
    • fetal alcohol effects (FAE) — less severe alcohol effects occur with lower levels of alcohol consumption
  10. Gender differences in gambling behaviors
    • men and women equally likely to have gambled in the past year
    • men gamble more frequently, have greater wins and losses
    • female pathological gamblers at greater risk for mood and anxiety disorders
    • males at greater risk for SUDs
Card Set
Lecture 8 - substance related and addictive disorders
Exam 1, Lecture 8 - Substance Related and Addictive Disorders