BIO UNIT 2 EXAM

  1. What are the biological roles of carbohydrates?
    THERE ARE 4
    • 1. ENERGY STORAGE
    • 2. TRANSPORT STORED ENERGY
    • 3. STRUCTURE
    • 4. RECOGNITION
  2. Carbohydrates are composed of what 3 atoms mainly?
    • CARBON
    • HYDROGEN
    • OXYGEN
  3. What is a simple sugar called?
    MONOSACCARIDE
  4. What are the building blocks of carbohydrates?
    SIMPLE SUGARS OR MONOSACCARIDES
  5. What are some examples of simple sugars?
    GLUCOSE, DEOXYRIBOSE, RIBOSE
  6. If 2 simple sugars link together, what is it called?  What reaction linked them?  What is the linkage called?
    DISACCHARIDE/ COVALENT BOND/ GLYCOSIDIC LINKAGE
  7. What is it called when a few simple sugars are linked together?  When many are linked together?
    OLIGOSACCHARIDE/ POLYSACCHARIDE
  8. Give 3 examples of polysaccharides and where they occur?
    • 1. CELLULOSE- STRUCTURE IN PLANTS
    • 2. STARCH- STORED ENERGY IN PLANTS
    • 3. GLYCOGEN- STORED ENERGY IN ANIMALS
  9. Can we digest cellulose?  Why or why not?
    ENDOSYMBIOSIS
    NO; BECAUSE WE DON'T HAVE THE BACTERIA IN OUR STOMACH TO BREAK IT DOWN.
  10. Where would you find the following and what is the functional role of each?  
    • Glycogen
    2 PARTS OF BODY
    ANIMALS; STORES ENERGY FOR MUSCLES AND LIVER
  11. Where would you find the following and what is the functional role of each?
    • Starch
    PLANTS; STORED ENERGY
  12. Where would you find the following and what is the functional role of each?
    • Cellulose
    CLEANS OUR PIPES
    PLANTS; STRUCTURE FOR PLANTS. FIBER FOR PEOPLE
  13. Where would you find the following and what is the functional role of each?
    • Chitin
    MAKES THE EXOSKELETON
  14. Where would you find the following and what is the functional role of each?
    • Peptidoglycan
    MAKES UP BACTERIA CELL WALLS
  15. Can you recognize a carbohydrate if you see a chemical structure?  How would you recognize the structure of a carbohydrate?
    1glucoseThm CxH2Cx
  16. What are the types of lipids?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. FAT
    • 2. PHOSPHOLIPIDS
    • 3. STEROIDS
  17. What are the main functions of lipids?  Which lipid is responsible for which function?
    • 1. LONG TERM ENERGY STORAGE--FATS & OIL
    • 2. STRUCTURE--PHOSPHOLIPIDS
    • 3. FLUIDITY-- STEROIDS--SEX HORMONES
  18. What elements are fats mainly composed of?
    C-C & C-H BONDS
  19. What are the building blocks of lipids?
    FATTY ACIDS
  20. Describe the chemical structure of an unsaturated fatty acid.
    CARBOXYL GROUP AT THE TOP W/A C=C BEND
  21. What is UNSATURATED FATTY ACID commonly called?  Where is it mainly found?
    AMPHIPATHIC WITH A HYDROPHILLIC HEAD AND A HYDROPHOBIC TAIL
  22. Give an example of something you eat that contains unsaturated fatty acids.
    VEGETABLE OIL
  23. Describe the chemical structure of a saturated fatty acid.
    CARBOXYL GROUP AT THE TOP W/ STRAIGHT C-C SINGLE BONDS ON TAILS; LINEAR
  24. What is SATURATED FATTY ACID commonly called?  Where is it mainly found?
    FAT OR LARD ON ANIMALS
  25. Give an example of something you eat that contains saturated fatty acids.
    BUTTER
  26. What bond/interaction links simple fats together?
    COVALENT WITH AN ESTER LINKAGE
  27. What is the biological role of a simple fat?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. ENERGY STORAGE
    • 2. THERMAL INSULATION
    • 3. ORGAN CUSHION
  28. BOTH HYDROPHOBIC AND HYDROPHILIC PARTS
    amphipathic
  29. 2 FATTY ACIDS+1 GLYCEROL+PHOSPHATE GROUP=
    phospholipids
  30. PLASMA MEMBRANE THAT IS CREATED FROM PHOSPHOLIPIDS DUE TO THEM BEING AMPHIPATHIC
    bilayer
  31. What are the 3 parts of a phospholipid?
    • 1. PHOSPHATE HEAD
    • 2. GLYCEROL
    • 3. FATTY ACID TAILS
  32. How are PHOSPHOLIPIDS connected?
    THERE ARE 3
    HYDROGEN BONDS, VAN DER WAALS, HYDROPHILIC INTERACTIONS
  33. Which parts are hydrophobic OF A PHOSPHOLIPID?  Hydrophilic?
    THE TAILS OR THE FATTY ACIDS; THE HEAD OR THE PHOSPHATE GROUP
  34. Draw and label a phospholipid.
    05_13PhospholipidStructur
  35. What are the biological roles of phospholipids?
    BUILD MEMBRANES
  36. What are the parts of a steroid?
    4 FUSED HYDROCARBON RINGS
  37. Draw and label a steroid.
    unnumbered_12_p350b
  38. What are the biological roles of steroids?
    THERE ARE 2
    • 1. PRODUCES SEX HORMONES
    • 2. PROMOTES FLUIDITY IN MEMBRANE
  39. What are the biological roles of proteins?
    THERE ARE 8
    • 1. ENZYMES
    • 2. DEFENSIVE
    • 3. HORMONES
    • 4. RECEPTIVE
    • 5. STORAGE
    • 6. STRUCTURE
    • 7. TRANSPORT
    • 8. MOVEMENT
  40. What are the building blocks of proteins?
    AMINO ACIDS
  41. What parts of AMINO ACIDS are the same?  What part is different?
    THE BACKBONES; THE R GROUP
  42. WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS IN THE BACKBONE OF AN AMINO ACID?
    THERE ARE 3
    THE AMINO GROUP AND THE CARBOXYL GROUP WITH A CENTRAL CARBON W/AN ALPHA HYDROGEN
  43. Draw a diagram OF AN AMINO ACID
    amino-acid-structure
  44. How many amino acids are needed in the human body?
    20
  45. What are the properties of the three groups of amino acids?  How many amino acids are in each group? WHAT INTERACTION OR BOND DOES IT USE?
    • 1. POLAR AND HYDROPHILIC; HYDROGEN--6
    • 2. NON-POLAR AND HYDROPHOBIC; VAN DER WAALS--9
    • 3. ELECTRICALLY CHARGED; IONIC BONDS--5
  46. Describe an oligopeptide.
    3-20 AMINO ACIDS
  47. Describe a polypeptide.
    20 OR MORE AMINO ACIDS
  48. Describe protein primary structure.
    THE SEQUENCE OF AMNO ACIDS
  49. What part of the amino acid is involved IN PRIMARY STRUCTURE?
    THE BACKBONE
  50. What bond is involved IN PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACIDS?
    COVALENT
  51. What is the shape OF PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACIDS?
    LINEAR CHAIN
  52. Describe protein secondary structure.
    HYDROGEN BONDS HAPPENING BETWEEN THE POLAR PARTS OF THE BACKBONE
  53. WHAT Part OF THE AMINO ACID IS INVOLVED IN SECONDARY STRUCTURE SHAPE?
    AMINO GROUP AND CARBOXYL GROUP
  54. what Bond IS INVOLVED IN SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACIDS?
    HYDROGEN BONDS
  55. WHAT Shape IS SECONDARY STRUCTURE OF AN AMINO ACID?
    • α HELIX
    • β PLEATED
  56. Describe protein tertiary structure.
    3RD STRUCTURE PROTEIN FOLDING
  57. WHAT Part OF THE AMINO ACID IS INVOLVED IN TERTIARY STRUCTURE?
    ALL BONDS BETWEEN THE R GROUP
  58. WHAT Bonds ARE INVOLVED IN TERTIARY STRUCTURE?
    PLUS 1
    ALL PLUS THE DISULFIDE BRIDGE
  59. WHAT Shape IS TERTIARY STRUCTURE OF PROTEIN?
    3D
  60. Describe protein quaternary structure.
    4TH LEVEL, MULTIPLE POLYPEPTIDES BINDING
  61. WHAT Part OF THE AMINO ACID IS INVOLVED IN QUATERNARY STRUCTURE?
    BASED ON THE R GROUPS
  62. WHAT BondS ARE USED IN QUATERNARY STRUCTURE OF PROTEIN?
    ALL
  63. WHAT Shape IS QUATERNARY STRUCTURE OF PROTEIN?
    THERE ARE 2
    GLOBULAR AND FIBROUS
  64. What conditions can affect protein structure?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. HEAT
    • 2. pH
    • 3. SALT
  65. SIDE CHAIN OF AMINO ACIDS
    R group
  66. COVALENT BOND BETWEEN THE 2 SULFHYDRYL GROUPS
    Disulfide bridge
  67. COVALENT BOND THAT LINKS AMINO ACIDS BY DEHYDRATION
    Peptide linkage
  68. SECONDARY STRUCTURE
    alpha_helix
    α helix
  69. beta-pleated-sheet-14831C082746DEFAA4D
    SECONDARY STRUCTURE
    β pleated sheet
  70. BREAKING AMINO ACIDS BY ACTION OF EXTREME CONDITIONS
    denaturation
  71. PROTEIN MOLECULES THAT HELP NEW PROTEINS TAKE SHAPE
    CHAPERONINS
  72. STORED ENERGY TO BE POTENTIALLY USED IN THE FUTURE
    potential energy –
  73. ENERGY OF MOVEMENT
    kinetic energy –
  74. COMPLEX MOLECULES BREAKING DOWN RELEASING ENERGY
    catabolism –
  75. SIMPLE MOLECULES BUILDING; REQUIRING ENERGY
    anabolism –
  76. REACTION THAT RELEASES AND BREAKS DOWN ENERGY
    exergonic reaction –
  77. REACTION THAT REQUIRES AN INPUT OF ENERGY TO MOVE FORWARD
    endergonic reaction –
  78. If a reaction releases energy what is it called?  What type of metabolism is it?  What reaction is taking place?
    EXERGONIC; CATABOLISM; HYDROLYSIS
  79. If a reaction requires energy what is it called?  What type of metabolism is it?  What reaction is taking place
    ENDERGONIC; ANABOLISM; DEHYDRATON
  80. Explain how catabolism and anabolism are linked.
    NEED CATABOLISM TO RELEASE ENERGY FOR ANABOLISM
  81. What is the first law of thermodynamics?
    ENERGY IS NEITHER CREATED OR DESTROYED
  82. What is the second law of thermodynamics?
    ENTROPY OR DISORDER INCREASES
  83. What is entropy and how is it related to the second law?
    DISORDER; EVERY CHEMICAL REACTION CREATES USABLE ENERGY THAT WE RELEASE AS ENTROPY
  84. SUBSTANCE THAT SPEEDS UP A CHEMICAL REACTION BY LOWERING THE ACTIVATION ENERGY W/O BEING ALTERED
    • catalyst –
  85. ORGANIC MOLECULE THAT ACTS AS A CATALYST BY SPEEDING UP A CHEMICAL REACTION BY LOWERING THE ACTIVATION ENERGY W/O BEING ALTERED
    enzyme
  86. RNA MOLECULE THAT FUNCTIONS AS ENZYMES
    ribozyme
  87. STARTING MATERIALS IN A CHEMICAL REACTION
    reactant
  88. ENDING MATERIALS OF A CHEMICALREACTION
    product
  89. THE HUMP THAT ENERGY HAS TO GET OVER USING ACTIVATION ENERGY
    energy barrier
  90. THE INITIAL INVESTMENT OF ENERGY NEEDED TO START A REACTION USUALLY IN THE FORM OF HEAT
    activation energy
  91. BINDS TO AN ENZYMES ACTIVE SITE
    substrate
  92. POCKET ON THE SURFACE OF AN ENZYME WHERE CATALYSIS OCCURS
    active site
  93. WHEN THE ENZYME AND SUBTRATE COME TOGETHER
    enzyme – substrate complex
  94. THE TIGHTENING OF THE BINDING AFTER INTIAL CONTACT
    induced fit
  95. INORGANIC MOLECULE LIKE METALS THAT BIND EITHER PERMANENTLY OR TEMPORARILY
    cofactor
  96. ORGANIC MOLECULE THAT BINDS EITHER PERMANENTLY OR TEMPORARILY
    coenzyme
  97. THE RATE AT WHICH A REACTION OCCURS
    rate of reaction
  98. What does an enzyme do to a reaction?
    SPEEDS OF THE CHEMICAL REACTION BY LOWERING THE ACVTIVATION ENERGY
  99. free_energy_rxn1_0.midsize
    EXERGONIC REACTION
  100. Exergonic-graph-ul
    • EXERGONIC REACTION
    • A. REACTANTS
    • B. ENERGY BARRIER
    • C. PRODUCTS
    • D. NET FREE ENERGY ΔG-
  101. endothermic1322584739413
    ENDERGONIC REACTION
  102. enzyme_graph
    • TOP IS W/O ENZYME
    • BOTTOM IS W/ENZYME
  103. Explain the four ways how an enzyme can lower the activation energy for a reaction?
    • 1. HYDROLYSIS REACTION
    • 2. DEHYDRATION REACTION
    • 3. SIDE CHAIN MAY BE DIRECTLY INVOLVED
    • 4. MICROENVIRONMENT OF ACTIVE SITE IS CONDUCTIVE
  104. WHAT TYPE OF GRAPH IS THIS:
    enzyme-saturation-curve
    ENZYME SATURATION GRAPH
  105. SERIES OF ENZYME CATALYZED CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT EITHER BUILD OR BREAK WHERE THE PRODUCT OF ONE REACTION BECOMES THE SUBSTRATE OF ANOTHER
    metabolic pathway
  106. MAINTENANCE OF INTERNAL BALANCE
    homeostasis
  107. MOLECULE BINDING TO AN ACTIVE SITE PERMANENTLY BY COVALENT BONDS
    irreversible inhibition
  108. MOLECULE USING WEAK BONDS TO BIND TO AN ACTIVE SITE
    reversible inhibition
  109. WHEN AN ENZYMES FUNCTION AT AN ACTIVE SITE IS AFFECTED BY A REGULAR MOLECULE--CHANGES SHAPE
    allosteric regulation
  110. HOW OUR BODY REGULATES THE DIFFERENT MOLECULES THAT ARE WITHIN THE CELLS
    feedback inhibition
  111. Describe the two types of reversible inhibition.
    • 1. COMPETITIVE--WANTS TO BIND TO THE ACTIVE SITE
    • 2. NONCOMPETITIVE-- BINDS TO ANOTHER SITE BUT CHANGES SHAPE MAKING ENZYME INACTIVE
  112. WHEN AN ENZYMES FUNCTION AT THE ACTIVE SITE IS AFFECTED BY A REGULATORY MOLECULE BINDING AT A REGULATORY SITE ON THE ENZYME. CHANGES ENZYME SHAPE AND TURNS ENZYME ON/OFF
    allosteric regulation
  113. WHEN THE END PRODUCT OF A METABOLIC PATHWAY BINDS TO AN ENZYME EARLIER IN THE PATHWAY, TURNS OFF THE PATHWAY.
    feedback inhibition
  114. What conditions can affect enzyme activity?
    HEAT AND pH
  115. A SERIES OF ENZYME CATALYZED CHEMICAL REACTIONS THAT EITHER BUILD OR BREAK.
    metabolic pathway
  116. What are the biological roles of nucleic acids?
    THERE ARE 3
    • 1. STORAGE OF GENETIC INFO
    • 2. TRANSMISSION OF GENETIC INFO
    • 3. USE OF GENETIC INFO
  117. What are the two nucleic acids in the human body? (spell out)
    • DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID
    • RIBONUCLEIC ACID
  118. What is each nucleic acid’s biological role?
    • DNA- PERMANENT STORAGE
    • RNA- COPIES GENETIC INFO
  119. What are the building blocks of nucleic acids?
    NUCLEOTIDES
  120. What are the components of these building blocks OF NUCLEIC ACIDS?
    PHOSPHATE GROUP, NITROGENOUS BASE, AND PENTOSE SUGAR
  121. WHAT IS THIS DIAGRAM?Adenosine-5-Monophosphoric_Acid_or_AMP_
    NUCLEIC ACID
  122. What are the 4 types of nitrogen bases found in DNA?
    • ADENINE
    • CYTOSINE
    • THYMINE
    • GUANINE
  123. What are the 4 types of nitrogen bases found in RNA?
    • ADENINE
    • CYTOSINE
    • URACIL
    • GUANINE
  124. What are the four main differences between DNA and RNA?
    • 1. DNA HAS 2 STRANDS
    • 2. SUGAR
    • 3. DNA WON'T BEND RNA IS FLXIBLE
    • 4. DNA HAS THIAMINE RNA HAS URACIL
    • 5. RNA CAN EXIT NUCLEUS
  125. What is the sugar found in DNA?  In RNA?
    DEOXYRIBOSE; RIBOSE
  126. What is complementary base pairing and how does it work?
    • DNA--T TO A & G TO C
    • RNA-- U TO A & G TO C
    • PURINE COMPLIMENTING TO PYRIMIDINE W/HYDROGEN BONDS
  127. Describe DNA replication.
    • DNA COPIES DNA
    • CLONES
  128. Describe transcription
    • RNA COPIES DNA 
    • SOMETHING ELSE DOING THE COPYING
  129. RIBOSOME IS READING WHAT IS SAID IN THE MESSENGER RNA, BUILDING THE POLYPEPTIDE
    translation.
  130. 2 RINGS ADENINE AND GUANINE
    Purine
  131. 1 RING--THYMINE, URACIL AND CYTOSINE
    Pyrimidine
  132. COVALENT BOND LINKING 2 NUCLEIC AVIDS TOGETHER
    Phosphodiester linkage
  133. MONOMER OF NUCLEIC ACID
    Nucleotide
  134. 3-20 NUCLEOTIDES
    Oligonucleotide
  135. 20 OR MORE NUCLEOTIDES
    Polynucleotide
  136. ENTIRE LIBRARY OF GENETIC INSTRUCTIONS
    Genome
  137. SEQUENCE OF A,C,G,T--RECIPE FOR PROTEIN
    Gene
  138. What are the molecules that compose simple fat? and how many of them are there?
    THERE ARE 2
    1 GLYCEROL & 1 FATTY ACID
  139. WHAT ARE THE MOLECULE THAT MAKE UP TRIGLYCEROL?
    1 MOLECULE OF GLYCEROL AND 3 FATTY ACIDS
  140. fattyacid
    FATTY ACID
  141. triglyceride1
    TRIGLYCEROL
  142. WHY IS A SIMPLE FAT HYDROPHOBIC?
    THE NON-POLAR C-H BONDS AFTER DEHYDRATION REACTION
Author
ccab1979
ID
338412
Card Set
BIO UNIT 2 EXAM
Description
BIO UNIT 2 STUDY GUIDE
Updated