Anthro 2A Midterm 2

  1. Diversity in terms (categories of kin)
    Mom, dad, aunt, uncle, brother, sister
  2. Diversity in underlying logic of kinship ties
    • you don't have the same terms for people and sometime the relationship between each kin is different depending on which society you are in
    • ex.) Mother is not = Madre is not = Chitnag
  3. Enduring Diffuse Solidarity
    special relationships with people the people you turn to for help
  4. Kin Terms
    words in a certain language that people use to identify their categories of kin "mother"
  5. Biological Kin Types
    • Description of actual genealogical relationships
    • F M S D B Z C H W
  6. Nuclear Family
    Immediate Family (Mom, Dad, Brothers, Sisters)
  7. Extended Family
    Expanded family
  8. Bilateral Descent
    Person inherits equally from both sides
  9. Unilineal Descent
    Descent is only phased through one side (Male or Female)
  10. Patrilineal Descent
    Traced through males (Belong to your Father's side)
  11. Matrilineal Descent
    Traced through females (belong to Mother's side)
  12. Lineage
    A unilineal descent group larger than an extended family whose members can actually trace how they are related
  13. Patrilineage
    Common identity through father
  14. Matrilineage
    Common identity through mother
  15. Kindred
    All the blood relatives of an individual (both sides)
  16. Clan
    Group of people who believe themselves to be related to a common ancestor in a unilineal manner, but CANNOT demonstrate the links
  17. Patriclan
    A clan tracing descent through the male line
  18. Matriclan
    A clan tracing descent through the female line
  19. Corporate Groups
    Collectively holds, manages, controls resources such as land. Lineages are often corporate groups, not kindreds since they don't persist through time (ends with Ego's death)
  20. Genitor
    Biological Father
  21. Pater
    Performs the duties of a father
  22. Functions of marriage - Descent
    • "who will inherit the throne"
    • Provides rights for children
  23. Functions of marriage - Alliance
    Marriage = new set of relatives
  24. Affines
  25. Incest Taboo
    Prohibition on sex (not marriage) between certain people who are related
  26. Monogamy
    Practice of being married to one spouse
  27. Polygamy
    Practice of being married to more than one spouse at a time
  28. Polygyny
    More than one WIFE at a time
  29. Polyandry
    More than one HUSBAND at a time
  30. Himalayan Agriculturist and Polyandry
    • Limited availability of land and inheritance
    • land is corporate
    • brothers all marry one wife and collectively run land
  31. Land Tenure
    Inheritance of land
  32. Primogeniture
    Oldest son inherits everything
  33. exogamy
    practice of marrying someone outside of your group
  34. endogamy
    practice of marrying someone within your group
  35. Caste System of India
    • -Brahmin
    • -Kshatriya
    • -Vaishya
    • -Shudra
    • -Untouchables
  36. Patrilocal Residence
    Newly-weds live with husband's people
  37. Matrilocal Residence
    Newly-weds live with wife's people
  38. Neolocal Residence
    Newly-weds find independent household elsewhere
  39. Bridewealth
    Payment from husband's people to bride's people
  40. Dowry
    Transfer from wife's people to husbands (giving wealth)
  41. Bride Service
    Husband lives with bride's people and works for them
  42. Marriage Exchange
    Wife gives to husband, husband gives to wife(s)
  43. Nuer Marriage
    Bridewealths paid in cattle (need descendants and cattle for immortality)
  44. Matrilateral biological kin types
    Any bio kin type starting with M
  45. Patrilateral biological kin types
    Any bio kin type starting with F
  46. Parallel Cousin
    Children of same sex siblings (Father's Brother)
  47. Cross Cousin
    Children of opposite sexed siblings (Father's sister)
  48. Ascending Generation
    Generations of ancestors above the ego (grandparents)
  49. Descending Generation
    Generations below the ego (grandchildren)
  50. Ego's own Generation
    Generation on the same line as Ego
  51. Band
    • -Basic unit of social organization among foragers
    • -Fewer than 100 people
    • -Often splits up seasonally
  52. Tribe
    • -Sociopolitical organization based on farming or herding
    • -no means of enforcing political decisions
  53. Chiefdom
    • -Single entity under authority of a chief
    • -kin-based with differential access to resources and a permanent political structure
  54. State
    Independent, centrally organized political unit, a government
  55. 4th World Peoples
    Peoples who have their own ethnic identity (Nuer, Native Americans)
  56. Masai Age Grades
    • Stages in the life cycle
    • -Elder
    • -Warrior
    • -Youth
  57. Masai Age sets
    Cohort group of similarly aged individuals that pass through age grades together, as a group
  58. Stratification
    Dividing societies into ranked groups of collectivities of people
  59. Differential access to prestige, power
  60. Egalitarianism
    A belief in the equality of all people
  61. Ascribed Status
    Inherited, like royalty
  62. Achieved Status
    Worked toward status
  63. Role
    Duties associated with a particular status
  64. Status Set
    All the statuses a person holds at a single time
  65. Class
    Position within overall division of labor
  66. Mode of Production
    The dominant way of making a living in a culture
  67. Means of Production
    Facilities and resources for producing goods
  68. authority
    a legitimate right to tell people what to do
  69. Headman
    • -Achieved status
    • -Personal attributes such as the reputation and having skills
  70. Bigman
    • -Achieved status
    • -Personal attributes such as the ability to persuade people, influential
  71. Moka in New Guinea Highlands
    • Competitive feasting and gifting
    • -Show superiority with gifts
    • -Big man organizes this
    • -Oversees alliances with other villages
  72. Chief
    • -Ascribed status
    • -Influence is independent of personal attributes
    • -Authority invested in the office of the chief
    • -Authority over fellow kinsmen
  73. Political Leaders in States
    • Diversity can be either ascribed (UK) or achieved (US) groups
    • Authority
    • Territory
  74. Authority and Mobilization of Labor: Contrast Bigman, Chief, State Leaders
    • Bigman: constantly gives to create personal relationships
    • -Creates small mobilization groups because of the effort it takes
    • Chief: kinship links
    • -Mobilize more people because of given authority
    • State: extends over territory
  75. Holism
    Any practice has to be understood in its whole context
  76. Ethnographic Fieldwork
    • -Qualitative research
    • -Going through the same thing you are researching such as living with the trobriand islanders
  77. Patriarchy
    • -Society ruled by men
    • -Associated toward violence
    • -Women are inferior
  78. Matriarchy
    • -Society ruled by women
    • -Not the mirror image of patriarchy
    • -Do not rule like dictators
    • -There is still a voting process
  79. Matriliny
    Descent through the female line
  80. Patriliny
    Descent through the male line
  81. Gender v. Sex
    • Gender
    • -Cultural meanings
    • -Binary opposition: What men are, women aren't
  82. Sex
    -Biological differences
  83. Gender roles
    Through different cultures and societies there are perceived notions of what female's and male's roles are
  84. Gender Stratification
    Inequality between genders
  85. Minangkabau "Matriarchy" (Sumatra)
    In Indonesia, males and females relate more like partners for the greater good rather than one gender above another
  86. Wealth & Political Relations
    • Giving away wealth, leaders accumulate power
    • -Creates alliances
    • -Causes debt by giving gift in excess
  87. Trobriand Wealth (Men and Women)
    • Mens wealth:
    • -Yams
    • -Stone axe blades
    • -Pigs
    • -Clay pots
    • - Shell necklaces and arm shells
    • Women's wealth:
    • -Skirts
    • -Banana leaf bundles
  88. Public & Domestic Domains
    • Domestic domain: the household
    • -(gender construction) typically females
    • Public domain: relations between and beyond households
    • -(gender constructions) typically males
  89. Trobriand Matrilineage & Matriclan
    • Matrilineage: belonging to your mother's lineage rather than fathers
    • Matriclan: belonging to your mother's clan
  90. Trobriand Sexuality
    • At a young age the trobrianders engage in sex.
    • In finding partners they wear coconut oil and other things that make them "beautiful" such as flower and shell arm bands that have "love spells" in them
    • Lovers are not allowed to be seen together in public so a girl or guy can go to their lovers house in the night but must return before morning
  91. Trobriand Marriage
    • -Sex before marriage is a common thing for the trobrianders
    • -Once marriage occurs that ceases because adultery is a serious crime to commit.
    • -A marriage is acknowledge when the woman goes to her lovers house and her mother brings cooked yams so they can eat together because lovers (before marriage) do not eat in front of each other
  92. Trobriand Views of Conception
    • -A spirit from Tuma enters a woman's body and then she becomes pregnant
    • -Their belief in magic influences a woman's chances of getting pregnant also
    • -Although in modern times the trobrianders understand the biological view of conception they still use magic in certain ways of explanation
  93. Fathers, Parenting, and Child Development
    Although a child born belongs to their mother's lineage and clan. The raising of a child is done by the father so that later in life the favor is returned
  94. Brother-Sister Avoidance
    • The incest taboo also adheres to the idea of a brother can not interfere with his sisters choice of husband
    • - Very little informal meeting between siblings
    • - No emotional connection
    • - Does not spend a lot of time together
  95. Yam Gardens
    • -Who makes them and for whom
    • The men makes the yams but for others (gardener's married sister)
    • Men makes yams for their own sisters or daughters
  96. Trobriand Chief, Chiefly Lineages, Redistribution vs Accumulation, Polygyny
    • -Chiefly Lineages were established long ago and continued to today or died off when ones matrilineage died.
    • -A chiefs role is to be generous and distribute his wealth (yams) through this he accumulates political power
    • -In order to be generous he requires a lot of yams and the only way he gains yams is through his wife(s).
    • -Chiefs are the only ones that practice polygyny because he gains yams through his wife
  97. Overturning the Yam House
    • -Chief gives yams away that he received by his wives brothers
    • -This is to show his generosity
  98. Kayasa
    Competition giving of yams between different clans
  99. Death, Funerals, and Trobriand Social Reproduction
    • -Death: When someone passes the trobriand believes it was because of sorcery
    • -To die a natural death is to die of old age in their sleep
    • -Social Reproduction: To be innocent of the sorcery the trobriands that knew the dead person will either be a worker or owner and have tasks to perform
  100. Sagali (Mortuary Exchanges), Workers and Owners, Owners Presentation of Women's Wealth to Workers
    • Sagali: Mortruary distrubution
    • -Paying off debts
    • -Reasserts strength of their lineage
    • Owners: members of the deceased's lineage
    • Workers: all others who do the work of the mourners
  101. Valova Exchanges
    Exchanges of women's wealth (banana leaf bundles and skirts)
  102. Relationship between yam gardens for sister and her husband, Sagali, Valolova
    • In context of a married women:
    • She will receive a yam house after marriage when the marriage seems solidified
    • Her brother and father will have a yam garden for her and this will be given to her husband
    • Yams are used in sagali as one form of payment for those who helped in the rituals for the dead person
  103. Kula Exchange
    Exchange of goods to create alliances between men such as stone axe blades and shell necklaces and arm bands
  104. Industrialism & Family Organization: general differences by class, General changes in North America, Age of Marriage, size & composition of households
    • spreads out which leads to the destruction of traditional roles, leading to a change in tradition
    • nonindustrial societies: central institution; family is the most important
    • industrial societies: (kinship is) enduring it lasts, ex: in an American society, kinship isn't as central as in nonindustrial societies, but it is still enduring. When you move out of home your friends become your close kin.
  105. Social organization
    Creation of systems to solve a problem
  106. Material Condition
    Resources available in an environment
  107. "Nature" and Kinship -Cultural construction or ties of "blood"?
    • Connected to each other by factors of reproduction
    • Natural blood ties don't exist because often the woman has children with another man who isn't her husband aka father gives cattle to the wife and is the father of ALL her children, even if biologically they arent his
  108. Strata
    level to which people are assigned based on their status
  109. Pantribal Sodalities
    Non-kin group organized for a specific purpose
  110. Nuer Marriage & "Descent"
    • - Patrilineal society
    • - Polygamy
    • - Bridewealth in cattle
    • - Man want descendents because of "immortality"
  111. Nuer Kinship and Sociopolitical Relations
    Nauru's way to give order to human groups in society so that groups may operate under society
  112. Nuer Segmentary Lineage System
    Big kinship structure with different patrilineages (common ancestor through male line), also called a segmentary lineage that provides for a political structure. Perks are that there are no formal leaders or political organization, but creates alliances and quick military formation through the recognition of kin from having the same ancestors.
  113. Economic Capital
    stocks, money in savings account, investments, give attention to what we do with the money and way. Make more money through investing.
  114. Social Capital
    Resources harnessed through social relations (the social relations themselves/ social network). A friend in a company can give you stock tips, people helping you move out. Schmoozing
  115. Cultural Capital
    Issues of style and taste. Competencies to consumption. Knowledge!!! Consumption can increase the value. What kind of beer do you drink? Clothes do you wear?
  116. Transgender people
    tend to be individuals whose gender identity contradicts their sex that was assigned at birth. They feel previous gender is incorrect.
  117. Hijra
    live in northern India, culturally defined as neither men nor women, or men that become women through castration and adopt female dress and behavior. They identify with the Indian mother goddess and are believed to channel her power
  118. Berdache
    a male who adopted social roles traditionally assigned to women and through performance of a third gender contribute to the social and spiritual well being of the community
Card Set
Anthro 2A Midterm 2