intro linguistics pragmatics

  1. macrolinguistics
    • analyzes utterances
    • concrete linguistic contributions to communicative interactions made by individuals, cf. parole
    • interested in how and why people actually use language
    • functional analysis
  2. microlinguistics
    • analyzes sentences
    • abstract linguistic, grammatical units, cf. langue
    • interested in the language people potentially use
    • descriptive analysis
  3. illocution
    intention/ function behind the speech act
  4. perlocution
    effect on the hearer
  5. locution
    actual act of producing language
  6. speech act types
    • apology
    • thanking
    • offer
    • suggestion
    • request
    • threat
    • complaint
  7. five speech act classes
    • assertives
    • directives
    • commissives
    • expressives
    • declarations
  8. assertives (representations)
    • statements about the world
    • e.g. asserting, concluding, stating, remarking
  9. directives
    • attempt by the speaker to get the hearer to do something
    • e.g. requesting, questioning, commanding
  10. expressives
    • express a psychological state of speaker, excalamtions
    • e.g. greeting, thanking, apologising, congratulating
  11. declarations
    • changes the institutional state of affairs
    • e.g. declaring war, firing from employment, baptizing
  12. speech act identification
    performative verbs/ hereby test
  13. IFIDs
    Illocutionary Force Indicating Devices
  14. Illocutionary Force
    • the ability of an utterance to fulfill a specific function
    • e.g. imperative form for requests, sorry for apology
  15. inferring
    hearer has to infer the meaning of what is said
  16. felicitious
    hearer correctly infers the intention, understands
  17. successful
    hearer reacts as intended, perlocutions as expected
  18. apology felicity conditions
    • propositional content: past act by S that S believes offended H
    • preparatory: S is held responsible for act
    • sincerity: S wants hearer to forgive
    • essential: counts as an attempts to get the H to forgive the previous act
  19. request felicity conditions
    • content: future act to be perfomed by the H
    • preparatory: H is able to do the A. The S believes H is able to do the A. It is not obvious to both S and H that H will do A in the normal course of events of his own accord
    • sincerity: S wants H to do A
    • essential: counts as an attempt to get the H to do A
  20. direct speech acts
    • speaker wants to communicate the literal meaning that the words conventionally express
    • form-function- relationship
  21. indirect speech acts
    S wants to communicate a different meaning from the apparent surface meaning
  22. Gricean pragmatics: Grice´s cooperative principle (CP)
    people cooperate in communication and rely on this cooperation to make conversation efficient
  23. maxim of quantity
    give as much information as is necessary for the interlocutors to understand your utterances, do not give more information than is necessary
  24. maxim of quality
    say only what you believe to be true and for what you have evidence
  25. maxim of relevance/ relation
    be relevant: say what is relevant in the present context
  26. maxim of manner
    be orderly and clear, avid obscurity of expression and ambiguity, be brief
  27. flouting maxims
    • they don´t observe one or more of Grice´s maxims, but not to mislead or sabotage their interlocutor
    • generartes conversational implicature
  28. violating maxims
    conversational maxim is purposely violated, uncooperative behavior, does not lead to conversational implicature
  29. conversational implicature (CI)
    • not part of the conventional meaning of what is said
    • interpretation is context dependent
    • as additional meaning conveyed by a speaker adhering to the cooperative principle
    • H needs to make inferences to find the intended meaning of what is said
  30. politeness theory (Brown & Levinson)
    politeness: appropriate communicative behavior relative to a social situation
  31. indirectness
    • is not the same as politeness
    • can work as a politeness strategy
  32. face
    the public self- image that members of a society want to claim for themselves
  33. negative face
    • the want that one´s action be unimpeded by others
    • desire to be left alone
  34. positive face
    • the want that one´s self-image is approved of by others
    • desire to be liked
  35. face threatening act (FTA)
    • act that by their nature run contradictory to the face wants of the addressee and/ or speaker
    • e.g. orders, requests, threats, remindings
  36. politeness strategies
    • used to minimize/avoid face damage
    • do FTA vs. don´t do FTA
    • FTA: on record: baldy, without redressive action or with redressive action
    • positive vs. negative politeness
  37. positive politeness
    • e.g. make compliments
    • use nicknames or endearment terms
  38. negative politeness
    • e.g. apologize
    • use titles, full names
  39. micro social variables for estimating the risk of face loss
    • D: social distance
    • P: relative power
    • R: (absolute) ranking of impositions
Card Set
intro linguistics pragmatics
linguistic, pragmatics, what we can do with language