1. types of democratic transitions
    • Bottom-up transitions 
    • Top-down transitions 
    • External imposition
  2. bottom-up democratic transition
    one in which the people rise unto overthrow an authoritarian regime in a popular revolution
  3. top-down democratic transition
    one in which the dictatorial ruling elite introduces liberalizing reforms that ultimately lead to a democratic transition
  4. perestroika
    • "economic restructuring"
    • reform policy aimed at liberalizing and regenerating the Soviet economy
    • A restructuring of the Soviet economy to permit more local decision making, begun by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985.
  5. Collective action
    The pursuit of some objective by groups of individuals. Typically, the objective is some form of public good.
  6. Public good
    • Goods that are 
    • nonexcludable: you cannot exclude people from enjoying the public good
    • nonrivalrous: there is just as much public good for people to enjoy no matter how many people consume it
  7. Revolutionary cascade
    when one person's participation triggers the participation of another, which triggers the participation of another, and so on
  8. Revolutionary threshold
    • the size of protest at which an individual is willing to participate
    • Everybody has a different revolutionary threshold.
    • The distribution of revolutionary thresholds is crucial in determining whether a revolution occurs or not.
  9. third wave of democratization
    refers to the surge in democratic transitions that have occurred around the world since 1974
  10. Public good
    • Goods that are 
    • nonexcludable: you cannot exclude people from enjoying the public good
    • nonrivalrous: there is just as much public good for people to enjoy no matter how many people consume it
  11. scientific method
    describes the process by which scientists learn about the world.
  12. tautology
    a statement that is true by definition.
  13. theory
    a set of logically consistent statements that tell us why the things that we observe occur. A theory is sometimes referred to as a model or an explanation.
  14. falsifiable
    potentially testable
  15. failed state
    a state-like entity that cannot coerce and is unable to successfully control the inhabitants of a given territory
  16. contractarian view
    view of the state that sees the creation of the state as resulting from a social contract between individuals in the state of nature in which the state provides security in exchange for obedience from the citizen
  17. predatory view of the state
    holds that states that exercise an effective control over the use of violence are in a position to threaten the security of citizens; this makes it possible for them to exploit the citizens that, according to the contractarian view of the state they have a duty to protect
  18. state of nature
    a term used to describe situations in which there is no state
  19. state
    an entity that uses coercion and the threat of force to rule in a given territory
  20. social contract
    an implicit agreement among individuals in the state of nature to create and empower the state; in doing so, it outlines the rights and responsibilities of the state and the citizens in regard to each other
  21. modernization theory
    predicts that democracy is more likely to emerge and survive as countries develop and become richer
  22. hypothesis
    the starting point for any statistical analysis which makes some falsifiable claim about the world
  23. dependent variable
    an outcome or thing we want to explain
  24. independent/explanatory variable
    what we think will explain, or determine the value of, the dependent variable
  25. primordialist arguments
    treat culture as something that is objective and inherited - something that has been fixed since "primordial" times
  26. cultural modernization theory
    argues that socioeconomic development does not directly cause democracy, instead economic development produces certain cultural changes, such as the emergence of a civic culture, and it is these cultural changes that ultimately produce democratic reforms
  27. polyarchy
    a political regime with high levels of both contestation and inclusion.
  28. substantive view of democracy
    classifies political regimes in regard to the outcomes that they produce.
  29. glasnost
    "openness", a reform policy aimed at increasing political openness
  30. collective action/free rider problem
    refers to the fact that individual members of a group often have little incentive to contribute to the provision of a public good that will benefit all members of the group
  31. Procedural democrac
    democracy in which the people or citizens of the state have less influence than in traditional liberal democracies. This type of democracy is characterized by voters choosing to elect representatives in free elections.
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