intro to linguistics syntax

  1. syntactic units
    • sentences
    • clauses
    • phrases
    • words
  2. sentence
    • governed by grammatical rules
    • consists minimally of verb (and subject)
  3. utterance
    • spoken language
    • functional unit of communication
    • doesn´t need to consist of subject and verb but may be any sound a speaker utters
  4. parts of speech
    • nouns
    • lexical verbs
    • adjectives
    • adverbs
    • prepositions
    • auxiliary verbs
    • determiners
    • pronouns 
    • conjunctions
  5. determiners
    • articles
    • quantifiers
    • numerals
    • demonstration
    • possessives
    • indefinites
  6. conjunctions
    • coordinators ("Fanboys": for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)
    • subordinators
  7. nouns
    • refer to entities or abstract concepts
    • declination (number, case)
  8. verbs
  9. lexical verbs
    denote actions, processes or states
  10. auxiliary verbs
    • primary auxiliaries: be, do, have
    • modal auxiliaries: can, could, may, must
    • semi-modals: have to, be supposed to
  11. adjective
    • comparison
    • denote qualities and characteristics
    • attributive position: before a noun
    • predicative position: after a linking verb
  12. pronoun
    • personal
    • possessive
    • demonstrative
    • relative
  13. prepositions
    • location
    • direction
    • relation
  14. parts of speech definition
    level of individual words
  15. sentence parts definition
    level of syntactic functions
  16. 5 sentence parts
    • subject
    • object
    • verb
    • adverbial
    • complement (subject or object)
  17. subject (s)
    • statements: before the verb
    • questions: after the first verb
    • subject-verb-agreement: controls wether the verb is singular or plural in the third person of the present tense
  18. adverbial
    • indefinite number of adverbials in a single clause
    • can be used in several positions in the clause, most common at the end of a sentence
    • can express a wide range of meanings, such as manner, place and time
  19. verb
    • most obligatory of all clause elements
    • choice of verb determineswhich other elements can be used in the clause
    • transitive verbs: require object
    • intransitive verbs: cannot be followed by an object
    • monotransitive: SVO
    • ditransitive: SVOO
    • avalent: (S)V
  20. copula verb
    • links complements to their subjects in meaning,e.g. be
    • example: The bull became angry.
  21. direct objects
    typically refers to person or thing directly affected by the action expressed by the verb (Akkusativobject)
  22. indirect object
    typically refers to an animate being which is the recipient of the action (Dativobjekt)
  23. complement
    • seen as completing the construction of another element
    • subject or object complement
  24. subject complement
    • usually follows the subject and the linking verb
    • e.g. She is a doctor.
  25. object complement
    • usually follows the direct object and its meaning relates to that element
    • e.g. They elected Obama president.
  26. simple sentences
    • consist of only one main clause
    • clause which is capable of standing alone
  27. compound sentences
    • consist of one main clause combined with one or more other clauses
    • linked by a coordinate conjunction
  28. complex sentences
    • main clause + at least one subordinate clause
    • linked by a subordinate conjunction
  29. phrases
    • clusters of words forming a syntactic category
    • each phrase has a head around which it is built
    • head determines the grammatical properties of the phrase and is the obligatory element
  30. noun phrase
    • may function as subject or object in a sentence
    • always contain some form of noun
    • NP-> (Det) (Adj.) N (PP)
  31. prepositional phrase
    • consists of a preposition followed by a noun phrase
    • two obligatory elements
    • PP-> P NP
  32. verb phrase
    • always contains a verb
    • VP -> V (NP) (PP)
  33. the structure of a sentence
    • obligatory: S-> NP VP
    • optional: auxiliary verb, in questions auxiliary verb is moved to the front
  34. adjective phrase
    • head is an adjective
    • e.g. The movie was not too terrible.
  35. adverb phrase
    e.g. The tired linguist slept soundly.
  36. recursion
    putting a phrase into a phrase into a phrase
Card Set
intro to linguistics syntax
linguistics, syntax, phrases and sentences