1. adventitious breath sounds
    abnormal breath sound heard over the lungs
  2. alveoli
    small air sacs at the end of the terminal bronchioles that are the site of gas exchange
  3. atelectasis
    incomplete expansion or collapse of a part of the lungs
  4. bradypnea
    slow rate of breathing
  5. bronchial sounds
    those heard over the trachea; high in pitch and intensity, with expiration being longer than inspiration
  6. bronchodilator
    medication that relaxes contractions of smooth muscles of the bronchioles
  7. bronchovesicular
    normal breath sounds heard over the upper anterior chest and intercoastal area
  8. cilia
    microscopic hairlike projections that propel mucous toward the upper airway so that it can be expectorated
  9. crackles
    fine crackling sounds made as air moves through wet secretions in the lungs
  10. diffusion
    tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilirium is established
  11. dry powder inhaler (DPI)
    for respiratory disorders, inhaled medication, breath activated (actuated by pt's inspiration, no need to coordinate the delivery of puffs with inhalation. Some must be loaded with med each time used & some hold preloaded number of doses. Disadvantage: med with clump if exposed to humidity.
  12. dyspnea
    difficult or labored breathing, most common symptom of hypoxia
  13. endotracheal tube
    with a laryngoscope as a guide this polyvinylchloride airway is inserted through the nose or the mouth into the trachea to administer O2 by mechanical ventilator, to suction secretions easier, or to bypass upper airway obstruction. Orotracheal insertion prefered in an emergency.
  14. closed airway suction system
    pt w/ endotracheal tube who is receiving continuous mechanical ventilation, used to keep airway patent and reduce the risk of hypoxemia or infection. Catheter in plastic sleeve: can remain connected for up to 24hrs, caregiver has additional protection from exposure to pt's secretions
  15. expiration
    the passive phase, movement of air out of the lungs. Diaphragm rises and recoils to the resting position.
  16. hemothorax
    blood that developes in the pleural space that require a chest tube to drain these substances and allow the compressed lungs to reexpand.
  17. hyperventilation
    increased rate and depth of ventilation. (stress)
  18. hypoventilation
    decreased rate or depth of air movment into the lungs
  19. hypoxemia
    insufficient oxygen in the blood, possible when suctioning that can irritate the mucosa and remove O2 from the repiratory tract. (hyperoxygenation before suctioning can help prevent)
  20. hypoxia
    inadequate amount of O2 available to the cells
  21. inspiration (inhalation)
    the active phase, involves movement of muscles and the thorax to bring air into the lungs. Diaphragm passes the abdominal organs downward and forward
  22. metred-dose inhaler (MDI)
    delivers a controlled dose of medication with each compression of the canister. Pt must activate the device while continuing to inhale. Spacer or extender device may be necessary to aid delivery of medication by the inhalation route.
  23. nasal cannula (nasal prongs)
    the most commonly used O2 delivery device, disposable plastic device w/two protruding prongs that are inserted into the nostrils, connected to O2 source w/ flowmeter and many times a humidifier, doesn't implede eating or speaking and used in the home
  24. nebulizer
    diperse fine particles of liquid medication into the deeper passages of the respiratory tract, where absorption occurs, treatment continues until medication in nebulizer cup has been inhaled.
  25. perfusion
    the process: oxygenated capillary blood passes through the tissues of the body
  26. pleural effusion
    fluid in the pleural space that require a chest tube to drain this substance and aloow the compressed lung to reexpand.
  27. pleural friction rub
    a continuous, dry grating sound. Caused by inflammation of pleural surfaces and loss of lubricating pleural fluid. Sound resembles that of two leather surfaces rubbing together.
  28. pneumothorax
    air in the pleural space, requires a chest tube to drain and allow the compressed lung reeexpand.
  29. pulmonary ventilation
    refers to the movement of air into and out of the lungs
  30. pulse oximetry
    SPO2, noninvasive technique that measures the arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of arterial blood. Monitor pt's receiving O2 therapy, titrating O2 therapy, those at risk of hypoxia and postop pt's.
  31. respiration
    gas exchange between the atmospheric air in the level of alveoli and blood in capillaries (alveoli-air sacs of the lungs)
  32. spirometer
    an instrument that measures lung volumes and airflow by the pt inhaling deeply and exhaling forcefully into instrument
  33. sputum
    respiratory secretion expelled by coughing or clearing the throat
  34. surfactant
    a detergent-like phospholipid, reduces the surface tension between the moist membranes of the aveoli, preventing their collapse.
  35. tachypnea
    rapid breathing
  36. thoracentesis
    procedure of puncturing the chest wall and aspirating pleural fluid, physician performs at bedside with nurse asst, consent req, to obtain a specimen for diagnostic purpose or to remove fluid that has accum in pleural cavity and causing respiratory difficulty and discomfort, sterile proc/asepsis required
  37. tracheotomy
    a surgical artificial opening made into trachea, level of 2nd & 3rd cartilagnious ring. Tracheostomy tube (curved tube) inserted through the opening. Reasons: to replace endotracheal tube, provide mecahnical ventilation, bypass upper airway obstruction, to remove tracheobronchial secretions
  38. vesicular
    normal breath sound low-pitched soft sounds heard over peripheral lung field
  39. wheezes
    continuous, musical sounds, produced as air passes through airways constricted by swelling, narrowing, secretions, or tumors. Simbilant (high pitched and whistling) or sonorous wheezes (like a snore).
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