chapter3/part 7

  1. a change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
  2. mutations

    cause changes in proteins. defective/missing

    DNA of somatic cells will be passed to daughter cells 

    DNA of sex cells will be passed to offspring
  3. mutations caused by chemical or physical agents
  4. Most common _____ are X-Ray and UV light
  5. Mutagens are most likely to occur in which phase of interphase
    • S phase 
    • when DNA is replicated
  6. Mutations in somatic cells cause
    cancer or cellular dysfunction
  7. Mutations in sex cells cause
    birth defects or death to offspring
  8. Mutations can be helpful because they
    increase genetic diversity that drives evolution

    essential research tools for genetics
  9. The result of cells escaping cycle control mechanisms
  10. Do not spread outside of the area of where the original tumor cell developed
    Benign (non cancer)
  11. spreads outside the area where the tumor developed
    Malignant tumors (cancer)
  12. The process in which malignant tumor cells travel to distant organs in the blood or lymphatic vessels and cause new tumors
  13. The process of developing cell-specific features

    • *cell becomes specialized
    • *more limited inits fate 
    • *occurs gradually/mostly fetal development
    • *most are amitotic/can not divide
  14. _____ are used to replace fully differentiated cells. 
    cells capable of dividing and replacing amitotic cells
    stem cells
  15. undifferentiated cells at an early embryonic stage
    Embryonic stem cells
  16. potential to develop into many different type of cells 

    used to produce mature organisms
    embryonic stem cells
  17. Partially differentiated cells following birth
    adult stem cells
  18. potential to develop into only a few types of cells 

    used to replace damaged tissues
    adult stem cells
  19. uses drugs to disrupt the cell cycle
  20. damages DNA
Card Set
chapter3/part 7
AP chapter 3 part 7