DHE122 Chapter1

  1. Pharmacology -
    a study of interaction of chemical substances with living systems including cells, tissues, and organisms.
  2. Drugs:
    Substances or chemical agents that affect biologic or living systems.
  3. Potency–
    Amount of drug needed to produce an effect. Some drugs are strong and only require a small amount to reach the desired effect.
  4. Efficacy–
    Maximum intensity produced by the drug. If more of the drug is introduced into the system it will result in adverse reaction, i.e overdose
  5. Pharmacokinetics –
    • Study of drug movement throughout the body, including:
    •    – how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body
    •    –Can be passive or active
  6. Pharmacodynamics:
    Action of a drug on a specific target organ, tissue including:

    –mechanism of action

    –receptor interactions

    –dose-response relationship

    – therapeutic and toxic reactions.
  7. Absorption of drugs –
    • Depends on route of administration, lipid drugs pass blood brain barrier
    • –Absorption depends on drug solubility, circulation, drug pH – infection, temperature at site, total surface area
    • – when drugs enter body largest absorption occurs in small intestines
  8. Distribution (drug)
    • –How drug leaves the blood stream and enters the body system
    • –Drug enters body – distributed to the liver. Liver metabolizes the drug – breaks it down
    • –Drug leaves and goes to the body/organs
  9. Elimination (drug):
    • drug is eliminated (excreted) by the kidneys
    • – Fat soluble drugs not excreted in urine, must be metabolized by liver
    • – drugs can also be excreted by: sweat, tears, saliva, crevicular fluid
    • Major route of excretion of fluoride in body is KIDNEYS/URINE
  10. Toxicology -
    • scientific study of poisons, industrial pollutants, and the undesirable effects of drugs on living cells, tissues, and organisms. 
    • –poison is any substance detrimental to health, leading to incapacitation, illness, or death.
  11. Dental Hygiene Process of Care:
    • –Assessment of drugs–The hygienist must know the names of drugs, dosages, mechanism of action, and interactions with other drugs.
    • –The medical/health history must be reviewed at each patient visit, including a thorough review of all medications the patient is taking.
    • –Check the medical history and ask the patient about allergic reactions to drugs.
    • –Be familiar with all drugs the patient is taking.
    • –Know and understand that drugs impact the management of patients.
    • –Polypharmacy is the use of many medications; many elderly are taking more than one drug.
  12. regulatory bodies:
    –Set standards and guidelines to protect the public from drug misuse
  13. Who is our national regulatory body?
    • Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
    • Before a new drug is introduced into the general population must be approved by the FDA
  14. Labeling for OTC Drugs:
    • –Drug Facts
    •    –Required on all OTC drug package labels
    •    –Help consumer understand how to use product
  15. –Chemical name
    –Refers to the chemical makeup of the drug and defines the unique chemical structure that is listed in the United States Adopted Names (USAN) designations.
  16. –Generic name
    • – written in small letters
    • –United States Adopted Names (USAN) designations (e.g., ibuprofen (generic), Advil(brand)
  17. –Brand name
    • your book calls Trade name
    • Registered trademark belonging to a particular drug manufacturer (e.g., Advil).
    • –Always in capital letter
    • Patent lasts for 17 years.
  18. How to write a prescription?
    Image Upload 1
  19. ac:
    before meals
  20. AM:
  21. bid:
    twice a day
  22. cap
  23. dis:
  24. prn:
    as needed
  25. q:
  26. qd:
    every day
  27. h:
  28. hs:
    at bedtime
  29. qh:
    every hour
  30. q8h:
    every 8 hours
  31. qid:
    4 times a day
  32. pc:
    after meals
  33. PM:
  34. stat:
    at once
  35. sig:
    write on label
  36. tid:
    3 times a day
  37. po:
    orally (by mouth)
  38. Rx:
    prescription (recipe)
  39. ps:
    a sufficient quantity
  40. tab:
  41. qtts:
  42. od:
    right eye
  43. os:
    left eye
  44. NR:
    no refills
  45. mL:
  46. –Prescription drugs
    –Require a prescription to be dispensed
  47. –Nonprescription drugs:
    • –OTC
    • –Do not require a prescription
  48. Drug schedule C-I:
    Not filled at pharmacy. Highest abuse Heroin, hashish
  49. Drug schedule: C-II:
    Must have prescription. No refills. High Abuse. Cocaine, morphine, methamphetamine.
  50. Drug schedule C-III:
    • Written oral prescription.
    • No refill more than 5 times within 6 months.
    • Moderate abuse. Tylenol with codeine, Vicodin, anabolic steroids.
  51. Drug Shcedule C-IV:
    • Written or oral prescription.
    • No refill more than 5 times within 6 months.
    • Low abuse. Valium, Xanax.
  52. Drug schedule C-V:
    • Prescription or OTC.
    • Lowest abused.
    • Cough medicines that contain codeine.
Card Set
DHE122 Chapter1
DHE122 Chapter1