organelles in a nucleus

  1. Control center of cell, contains
    Nuclear Envelope
  2. nuclear envelope
    two unit membranes held together at nuclear pores
  3. matrix or substance of the nucleus .Contains the genetic material arranged in long  DNA molecules which combine with proteins to form chromosomes.
  4. Nucleolus
    dark non-membrane bound area composed of proteins and dense collection of Ribo Nucleic Acid(RNA) found within the nucleus. It is the site of ribosome production
  5. Rough ER
    • Parallel, flattened membranous sacs covered with ribosomes
    • Continuous with nuclear envelope and smooth ER
  6. Serves as the work bench for synthesis of packaged proteins for the plasma membrane & glyco proteins, and digestive glands
    Rough ER
  7. Smooth ER
    • Lack ribosomes
    • Cisternae more tubular and branching
  8. Synthesizes Lipids & steroids for membrane phospholidids (ovary and testes hormones)
    Metabolizes Carbohydrates & steroids
    Detoxifies in liver and kidney
    Smooth ER
  9. Regulates Calcium storage (skeletal and cardiac muscle)
    Smooth ER
  10. Synthesizes proteins for use in the various parts of the cell
  11. use directions specified by the genetic code (DNA) through the  messenger RNA to assemble amino acids in the correct specific form to make proteins.
  12. where can ribosomes be found?
    found in nucleolus , free in cytosol and rough ER
  13. The warehouse of the cell 
    Receives, process, packages, proteins into membrane bound vesicles
    golgi complex
  14. organelle that BUILDS lysosomes
    Golgi Complex
  15. membrane enclosed vesicles formed by golgi complex, contain digestive enzymes-hydrolase
  16. what are the lysosomes functions?
    • intracellular digestion of large molecules
    • Contain up to 40 hydrolytic enzymes
    • autophagy - digestion of worn out organelles autolysis - death
    • breakdown stored glycogen in liver to release glucose
  17. Resemble lysosomes but contain different enzymes like catalase and uric acid oxidase
    In all cells but abundant in liver and kidney
  18. what are the functions of the peroxisome
    • neutralize free radicals, detoxify alcohol, other drugs and toxins
    • uses O2, H2O2 and catalase enzyme to oxidize organic molecules
    • breakdown fatty acids into acetyl groups for mitochondrial use
    • produce h2o2 (hydrogen peroxide) and converts to h2o
  19. Power house of the cell... found more in muscles
  20. these GENES are inherited only from mother as sperm mitochondria are used up and destroyed.
  21. Space between cristae called matrix
    contains ribosomes and small, circular DNA molecule (mtDNA)
    They self replicate as per demand
  22. regions near the nucleus where its matrix generates and anchors the microtubules
  23. short cylindrical assembly of microtubules (nine groups of three)These lie perpendicular to each other.
    These play an important role in cell division(mitosis) & Cilia formation
  24. migrates to plasma membrane to form basal body of cilia or flagella
    two microtubules of each triplet elongate to form the nine pairs of the axoneme
    cilium reaches full length rapidly
    Single centriole
  25. Collection of filaments and tubules
    provide support, organization and movement
    Composed of 3 types of rods
    Cytoskeleton-Cell skeleton
  26. what are the 3 types of rods that make up the cytoskeleton
    • Microtubules 
    • microfilaments 
    • intermediate fibers
  27. (thick) (tubulin) 
    large hollow tubes made of protein subunits called tubulins, these radiate from near  the nucleus called the centrosome or cell center.
    separates chromosomes during cell division.
  28. (thin) (actin) built as twisted double chain
    thin strands made of actin forms network on cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane called the membrane skeleton
    supports phospholipids and microvilli and produces cell movement
  29. in the middle (Keratin)
    are tough insoluble proteins , rope like
    help hold epithelial cells together; resist stresses on cells; line nuclear envelope; toughens hair and nails.
    intermediate fibers
Card Set
organelles in a nucleus
You will pass with an A