ESS First Term

  1. Influences of the Environmental Movement: Environmental Disasters
    • 20th of April 1986, Chernobyl plant in Ukraine exploded. The incident raised questions about the general safety of nuclear power.
    • 11th of March 2011, Fukushima power plant was hit by a tsunami wave. Following the incident, all 48 Japanese plants were shut down. The move away from nuclear power was replicated around the world.
  2. Influences:
    Literature, Media, Technology, International Agreements, Environmental Disasters
  3. Literature
    • Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring made a strong case against pesticides and DDT.
    • James Lovelock’s Gaia proposed that the Earth was a living organism with homeostasis and that human activity was disturbing it.
  4. Media
    • An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore 2006 made global warming accessible and well known.
    • Greenpeace: Save the whales, anti nuclear testing protests
  5. Environmental Managers:
    • Economic growth and resource exploitation with consensus among representative groups
    • Taxes, fees, arrangements, compensation
  6. Technological Innovation
    The Green Revolution between 1940 and 1960 were a time when developments in farming led to increased agricultural productivity and allowed for the population of the earth to persist.
  7. Technocentric short values:
    • Pro-growth
    • Research
    • Optimism
  8. Ecocentric short values:
    • Self-restraint
    • No faith in tech
    • Education
    • biorights
  9. Increasing demands for water resources: technocentric
    • Innovation and the ability to use untapped reserves
    • Desalination
    • Iceberg transport
    • Wastewater purification
    • Won’t change habits
  10. Increasing demands for water resources: ecocentric
    • Encourage conservation
    • Highlight misuse and overuse
    • Change habits
  11. Intrinsic value:
    Different EVSs view the different components of the biosphere differently based on cultural, aesthetic and bequest significance
  12. Ecosystems:
    Is a community of independent organisms and the physical environment they inhabit.
  13. How to apply sustainability?
    • Sustainable material cycles
    • Social systems that contribute to a culture of sufficiency
    • Ecological land usage
  14. Why are we unsustainable?
    Overpopulation, financial motives, overgrazing, overculvitation
  15. A global perspective is important. Why?
    • Many issues have global impact.ecosystems are affcted by global processes.
    • Sometimes local solutions may also be fit (point-source pollution)
  16. Primary vs. Secondary pollution
    • Primary is active on emission
    • Secondary is arising from primary undergoing physical or chemical change
  17. Bioaccumulation
    Is the build up of non biodegradable chemicals in the body
  18. Biomagnification
    Is the process whereby the concentration of a chemical increases at each trophic level
  19. Pollution Management
    • Changing human activity to prevent pollution will be the most effective
    • Reduction of pollution through legislation or technology
    • Clean up or restoration of damaged systems is costly and not effective (replantation)
  20. How to achieve sustainable development:
    • Environment: reduce, reuse, recycle,
    • Renewable energy sources
    • Protected wildlife
    • Society:
    • Education and awareness
    • Politial action
    • Social stablity
    • Economy:
    • Reduced pollution
    • Energy efficient
    • Economics of sufficiency not greed
  21. Energy security
    • Is the uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price\Long term: timely investments
    • Short term: adaptation to changes in demand-supply
  22. What does the energy source choice of a country depend on?
    • Availability
    • Population size
    • Tech
    • Culture
    • politics
  23. Energy Security Factors
    • Political stability
    • Protests
    • Sudden rises in cost
    • Exhaustion or disruption of supply
  24. What is climate
    Describes how the atmosphere behaves over relatively long periods of time
  25. What is weather
    Describes the conditions in the atmosphere for a short period of time
  26. Influences on climate:
    • Ocean systems:
    • Salinity and temperature
    • Currents move and store heat
  27. Atmospheric circulatory systems
    Pressure points
  28. Composition of the atmosphere:
    • Trace gases: COz and CH4
    • Nitorgen 78
    • Oxygen 20
    • Argon 1
  29. What is Adaptation
    • Living with the consequences od climate change
    • Protect cities from strom surges
    • Protect crops form drought’coastal management’monitor and control tropical diseases
  30. What is Mitigation
    • Reducing or stabilizing GHG emissions
    • Cap and trade systems, carbon tax, energy efficient products, geoengineering CCS, UN-REDD fertilizing oceans, but past emissions will continue to have an effect for decades to come
  31. Kyoto Protocol
    The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (a) global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2
  32. Non-renewable resources will be more expensive in the future. Why?
    Taxes, scarcity, extraction will be hard
  33. Cornucopian:
    Belief that people can always find a way out of any difficulties.
  34. Stewardship
    Every person has the responsibility to look after the planet.
  35. COP
    They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC Parties(Conference of the Parties, COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
Card Set
ESS First Term
fuck my life