Perio Lecture 4

  1. the tissues that surround and support the teeth, including the gingiva, cementum, PDL and alveolar bone
  2. 3 anatomical parts of the gingiva (3)
    • margina gingiva (unattached)
    • attached gingiva
    • inderdental gingiva
  3. What demarcates the free gingiva from the attached gingiva?
    the marginal groove

    (or free gingival groove--only 50% observable)
  4. separates from tooth with gentle probing
    gingival collar
  5. space between tooth and tissue-->normal probing depth 2-3 mm
    gingival sulcus
  6. What is considered a pathological probing depth?
    4 mm or more
  7. bound to periosteum of underlying bone and terminates at the mucoginigval junctions
    Attached gingiva
  8. What joins attached gingiva with alveolar mucosa
    attached gingiva
  9. True/False: attached gingiva is generally stationary throughout adult life
  10. The width of the attached gingiva is between the MGJ and the ____ ____ ____
    base of the sulcus/pocket
  11. what type of gingiva is found between gingival margin and MGJ
    keratinized gingiva
  12. without keratinized gingiva what 4 things happen
    • not connective tissue attachment
    • less barrier
    • more likely progression of periodontitis
    • more likely progression of peri-implant mucositis/peri-implantitis
  13. What is a way to gain KG?
    free gingiva graft
  14. occupies gingival embrasure space and is shaped either pyramidal or "col"
    interdental gingiva
  15. True/False: in areas of diastema, interdental papillae are typically not present
  16. The interdental papillae have 4 different surfaces, what are they?
    • buccal
    • lingual 
    • mesial
    • distal
  17. The depression in the gingival tissue underneath a contact area between the lingual papilla and facial papilla. Sort of like a volcano-shaped tissue under where two teeth contact one another.
  18. Why does no papilla form with diastema?
    If teeth arent touch together then the gums cannot feel the edge of the tooth and so the gums do not grow in so there are no papilla
  19. central core of connective tissue covered by stratified squamous epithelium
  20. histological type of gingiva
    stratified squamous
  21. principle of function of gingiva
    protection of deep structures (covering for the CT)
  22. principle cell type in gingiva
  23. keratinocyte characteristic that is the constant regneration and replacement of like cells
  24. keratinocyte characteristic that is the morphologic changes relative to functional demands (nonkeratinized ↔ orthokeratinized
  25. True/False: in the gingiva, renewal is continuous
  26. dimension of the tissues are maintained by cell formation at the ____ ____ balancing shedding of cells at the _____
    Basal Layer

  27. In what areas does mitotic rate increase?
    in areas of inflammation
  28. nonkeratinocyte cell that produces melanin, coloration (found also in CT)
  29. nonkeratinocyte cell that have a role in immune response (oral and sulcular epithelium)
    langerhans cells
  30. nonkeratinocyte cell that are the deep layers and harbor nerve endings and have a role in tactile sensation
    Merkel cells
  31. Three types of epithelium in the oral cavity
    • oral or outer epithelium
    • sulcular epithelium 
    • junctional epithelium
  32. What type of epi is oral or outer?
    parakeratinized with nuclei
  33. Epi that forms a covering for  Crestal surface & Outer surface of Marginal Gingiva and the surface for attached gingiva
    oral or outer epithelium
  34. where is the location of sulcular epi and what are the dimensions?
    lining of the gingival sulcus

    it runs from junctional epi to the crest of the marginal gingiva
  35. what type of epi is sulcular?
    Thin, nonkeratinized stratified squamous
  36. How can sulcular epi become keratinized (2)
    • reflected and exposed to oral cavity
    • contacting bacterial flora is eliminated
  37. True/False: some findings suggest bacterial contact may prevent or diminished keratinization
  38. Location and type of junctional epi
    collar-like band, initially at the CEJ 

  39. how is junctional epithelium attached to enamel/dentin? (IMPORTANT)
  40. What are the digestions of junctional epi? (numbers)
    0.25-1.35 mm in width (approx 1 mm)
  41. Functions of JE (2)
    forms a biological seal to 

    anchor soft tissue to tooth structure

    protect underlying periodontal fibers from bacterial insult
  42. 3 stages of apical migration of JE
    • proportionate loss of gingival fibers
    • proportionate loss of alveolar bone
    • periodontal pocketing
  43. difference between infra bony and supra bony pocket?
    infrabony is the pocket formed below the alveolar bone

    supra bony is the pocket formed above the alveolar bone
  44. How does gingival (sulcular) fluid travel?
    from the CT and through the sulcular epithelium
  45. what are the 4 functions of the sulcular fluid
    • cleanse material from sulcus
    • provide plasma proteins for epithelial adhesion
    • antimicrobial properties
    • defense through antibodies
  46. Healthy tissue sucular fluid ____, while inflamed tissue fluid _____
    transudates--travel constantly from a higher concentration to lower (gradient fusion)

    exudates--moves because of an inflammatory overload
  47. GCF contents
    Vast array of biochemical factors – diagnostic /prognostic biomarker

    Also contains connective tissue, epithelium, inflammatory cells, serum, and microbial flora

    Bacteria, GCF, blood - calculus
Card Set
Perio Lecture 4
Perio Exam