Patho test 1 (5)

  1. first line of defense
    • Inate (natural) (native) immunity
    • -physical, mechanical, biochemical. barriers
  2. second line of defense
    inflammatory response
  3. third line of defense
    adaptive (acquired) (specific) immunity
  4. First Line of Defense
    • •Physical barriers and Mechanical barriers:• skin and mucous membrane •Linings of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory tracts
    • -Sloughing off of cells
    • -Coughing and sneezing
    • -Flushing—urine
    • -Vomiting
    • -Mucus and cilia 
    • non specific
  5. First Line of Defense (Cont.): Epithelial cell-derived chemical barriers
    •Secrete saliva, tears, earwax, sweat, and mucus
  6. First Line of Defense (Cont.): Antimicrobial peptides
    •Cathelicidins, defensins, collectins, and mannose-binding lectin
  7. First Line of Defense (Cont.):Normal microbiome
    •Each surface colonized by bacteria and fungi that is unique to the particular location and individual
  8. second line defense
    inflammatory responses (first immune response to injury)
  9. second line defense is caused by a variety of materials
    •Infection•tissue necrosis•trauma•physical or chemical injury•foreign bodies•immune reaction•ischemia•Nutrient Deprivation
  10. Mast Cell Degranulation: Histamine
    • *Vasoactive amine that causes temporary, rapid constriction vessels of the large blood vessels and the dilation of the postcapillary venules
    • *H1 and H2 receptors
  11. Mast Cell Degranulation: Leukotrienes
    • •Product of arachidonic acid from mast cell membranes
    • •Similar effects to histamine in later stages
  12. Mast Cell Degranulation: Prostaglandins
    • •Similar effects to leukotrienes
    • • they also induce pain (ibuprofen)
  13. Mast Cell Degranulation: Platelet-activating factor
    •Similar effect to leukotrienes and platelet activation
  14. Phagocytes: Neutrophils (doesn't last long because of exudate (puss))
    • *Also referred to as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)
    • *Predominate in early inflammatory responses around 6-12 hours after initial injury
    • * Ingest bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris
    • *Cells are short lived and become a component of the purulent exudate
  15. a band
    immature neutrophil
  16. Phagocytes:Eosinophils
    • *Mildy phagocytic
    • *defense against parasites and regulation of vascular mediators 
    • -if you have allergies __ will need to increase
  17. Phagocytes Basophils
    • *Least prevalent granulocytes 
    • *Primary role unknown
  18. Phagocytes: Monocytes and macrophages
    • *Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow, enter the circulation, and migrate to the inflammatory site, where they develop into macrophages
    • *Macrophages typically arrive at the inflammatory site 24 hours or later after neutrophils
  19. Phagocytes: Dendritic cells
    • •In peripheral organs and skin
    • •Migrate through lymph vessels to lymph tissue and interact with T lymphocytes to generate an acquired immune response
  20. Phagocytosis
    • •Process by which a cell ingests and disposes of foreign material
    • •Production of adhesion molecule
  21. Phagocytosis: Margination (pavementing)
    Adherence of leukocytes to endothelial cells
  22. Phagocytosis:Diapedesis
    Emigration of cells through the endothelial junctions
  23. Phagocytosis: Chemotaxis
    Migrate towards the area of inflammation
  24. Phagocytosis:Engulfment and disposal
    of any pathogen
  25. Sanguineous (fluid)
    clear, watery plasma
  26. Purulent: fluid
    thick, yellow, green, tan or brown
  27. Serosanguineous (fluid)
    Pale red, watery: mixture of serous and sanguineous
  28. Serous (fluid)
    clear, watery plasma
Card Set
Patho test 1 (5)
module 2