Patho test 1 (1)

  1. etiology
    cause of disease
  2. cellular adaptation is physiologic and pathologic
  3. atrophy
    reversible; cell decrease in size because demand decreases
  4. causes of call atrophy
    disuse, ischemia, Endocrine dysfunction,  Persistent cell injury,  Aging
  5. hypertrophy
    cells increase in size because increased  demand
  6. hypertrophy can be either physiologic or pathologic
    • physiologic: normal, weight lifting
    • pathologic: abnormal, enlarged organs
  7. hyperplasia
    increase in number of cells
  8. hyperplasia can be physiologic or pathologic
    • physiologic: great and uterine enlargement 
    • pathologic: enlargement of the prostate gland
  9. metaplasia
    • 1. Replacement of one differentiated cell type with another
    • 2. Cells retains same basic tissue type 
    • 3. Usually occurs in response to chronic irritation and inflammation
    • 4. Reversible
  10. dysplasia
    • 1. Cells mutate with abnormal variations in size, shape and arrangement 
    • 2. abnormal 
    • 3. may be reversible
    • 4. strongly implicated as a precursor to cancer
  11. cellular injury mechanisms
    hypoxic injury, free radical and reactive oxygen species injury, chemical injury, infectious injury, immunologic/ inflammatory injury
  12. hypoxic injury
    single most common cause of cellular injury
  13. hypoxic injury results from
    • *Reduced amount of oxygen in the air•Loss of hemoglobin or decreased efficacy of hemoglobin
    • *Decreased production of red blood cells, *Diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems
    • *Poisoning of the oxidative enzymes within the cells
  14. most common cause of hypoxia is
    ischemia. Can be progressive or acute
  15. ischemia
    an inadequate blood supply to an organ or part of the body, especially the heart muscles.
  16. Ischemia is often caused by
    Arteriosclerosis (gradual narrowing of arteries) Thrombosis (complete blockage by blood clot)
  17. Arteriosclerosis
    gradual narrowing of arteries
  18. Thrombosis
    complete blockage by blood clot
  19. Free radicals and reactive oxygen species
    Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron that damage:•Lipid peroxidation•Alteration of proteins•Alteration of DNA•Mitochondria
  20. Chemically injury
    Carbon tetrachloride• lead •Carbon monoxide•Ethanol•Mercury•Social or street drugs •Over the counter or prescribed drugs
  21. blunt force injuries
    confusions, abrasions, lacerations, fractures
  22. sharp force injuries
    puncture wounds, stab wounds, incised wounds, chop wounds
  23. other two types of unintentional and intentional wounds
    gunshot wounds and Asphyxial injuries
Card Set
Patho test 1 (1)
module 1