Chapter 16

  1. consist of a chemical secreted by cells into extracellular fluid to affect the nearby but different types of cells
    Paracrine
  2. a chemical secreted by cells into the interstitial fluid elicits effects from the same cell or cell type
    Autocrine
  3. when cells sense a rise in particular hormones in the body, certain target cells with produce more receptors for that hormone. This process is known as
    UP- Regulation
  4. prolonged exposure of a hormone on a target cell can cause the target cell to decrease the number of receptors for that hormone. This process is known as
    Down Regulation
  5. what is special about thyroid hormones
    Thy are amino-acid based but yet hydrophobic unlike other amino acid-based hormones
  6. hormones that are usually hydrophillic
    Amino acid-based
  7. Hormone that are usually hydrophobic
    Steroid Hormones
  8. these enzymes catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to other molecules, this process in known as phosphorylation. Phosphorylation also changes the activity or shape of a specific protein
    Protein Kinases
  9. when other hormones act on the same target cell to exert the same affect. they have a more pronounced affect when acting together than when acting alone
    Synergists
  10. hormones that act on the same target cells but have opposite effects.
    Antagonists
  11. the stalk that connects the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus
    Infundibulum
  12. another name for the anterior pituitary gland
    Adenohypophysis
  13. Another name for the posterior pituitary gland
    Neurohypophysis
  14. what is the hypothalmic hormone that controls water balance
    ADH Vasopressin
  15. what is the primary function of ADH
    Increases the amount of water retained by the body, decreases urine production
  16. stimulates the development of the thyroid gland and its secretion of thyroid hormones_____
    Secretion is triggered by a hypothalamic releasing hormone known as_______
    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone
    • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
  17. the secretion of TSH is inhibied by the hpothalmic hormone
    Somatostatin
  18. is produced by cells called corticotrophs, it stimulates the evelpment of the adrenal glands
    Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  19. secretion of ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone is stimulated by a hypothalmic hormone known as
    Coricotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
  20. What does prolactin do
    • Stimulates growth of the mammary gland
    • Milk production after birth
    • maintains mil for breastfeeding
    • Produced by cells called Lactotrophs
  21. growth hormone is sereted by cells called
    Somatotrophs
  22. cells that produce Calcitonin
    Parafolicular cells
  23. cells that produce the Parathyroid hormone are called
    Chief Cells
  24. effects of the thyroid Hormone t3 and t4
    • Regulation of metabolic rate
    • Promotion of growth and development
    • Synergism with the sympathetic nervous system
  25. what does the parathyroid hormone do
    • increase release of calcium ions from bone by stimulating osteoclasts
    • Increase absorption of dietary calcium ion by the small intestine
    • Increase the reabsorption of calcium from the fluid in the kidneys
  26. what type of cells release calcitonin
    Parafollicular Cells
  27. what cells make t3 and t4
    Follicle Cells
  28. what cells does calcitonin target
    Osteoclasts
  29. what cells do parathyroid hormone target
    Bone Kidneys Intestines
  30. what two types of hormones do the adrenal glands produce
    Steroid Hormones and Catecholamines
  31. Chromaffin cells, which make up the adrenal Medulla secrete their products directly into the
    Bloodstream
  32. The Adrenal Medulla and Chromaffic cells produce
    • Catecholamines
    • Epinephrin and Norepinephrine
  33. effects of Catecholamines
    • Increase heart rate and force of contraction
    • dialate the bronchioles
    • Constrict the blood vessels supplying skin and digestive organs while dialating blood vessels supplying skeletal muscles
    • Dialating Pupils and Decreasing digestive and urinary function
  34. what are the 3 adrenal cortical hormones
    • Aldosterone (mineralcorticoid)
    • Cortisol (glucocorticoid)
    • androgen (androgenic steroid)
  35. what does aldosterone do
    • increases na retention and water retention
    • increases k loss
    • increases hydrogen loss
    • regulates blood pressure
  36. what does cortisol do
    • Increases gluconeogenesis in liver
    • Increases protein breakdown in muscles
    • Increases lipolysis in adipose tissue
    • Inhibits inflamatory response
  37. what are the 3 cell types of the pancreatic Islets
    alpha beta and delta cells
  38. what do alpha cells produce
    Glucagon
  39. what do beta cells produce
    Insulin
  40. what do delta cell produce
    Somatostatin
  41. what does glucagon do
    • break down glycogen into glucose (glycogenolysis)
    • forms new glucose by gluconeogenesis in the liver
    • protein breakdown in muscle tissue to release amino acids
    • release of fats from adipose tissue for gluconeogenesis
    • Formation of ketone bodies in the liver
  42. when too many ketone bodie accumulate in the blood and lower the ph this is known as
    Ketoacidosis
  43. how is glucagon secretion stimulated
    A decrease in blood glucose concentration or the intake of proteins
  44. what does insulin do
    • Stimulates glucose uptake by most target cells
    • uptake of lipids, amino acids, and glucose
    • Synthesis of glycogen in the liver
    • Synthesis of fat from extra carbs and lipids
    • Promotion of satiety
  45. the pancreas secretes what two hormones
    Glucagon and insulin
  46. what does the pineal gland secrete
    Melatonin
  47. what does melatonin do
    Regulates the sleep wake cycle and promotes sleep
  48. Target cells of melatonin
    Reticular formation of the brainstem
  49. what two hormones does the Thymus secrete
    • Thymosin¬†
    • Thymopoietin and targets T lymphocytes
  50. what organ secretes progesterone
    Ovaries
  51. what does progesterone do
    Prepare the body for pregnancy
  52. what hormone does adipose tissue secrete
    Leptin
  53. what does leptin do
    Goes to the brain and promotes satiety
  54. what 3 hormones to the kidneys secrete
    • Erythropoietin
    • Renin
    • Vitamin D
  55. what stimulates Melatonin
    light and dark cycles
  56. what organ slowly turns into adipose tissue but is active while we are younger with a developing immune system
    Thymus
  57. what stimulates testosterone production
    LH Luteinizing Hormone
  58. why is erythropoietin secreted
    When there is a decreased level of oxygen in the blood
  59. what does erythropoietin do
    acts on red bone marrow to help the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
  60. what does Renin do
    helps regulate blood pressure
  61. these hormones act without entering the blood
    local Hormones
  62. These hormones travel through blood vessels before they reach their target
    circulating hormones
  63. lipid soluble hormone have the ability
    to go through the cell membrane and bind withing the cell
  64. the major link between nervous and endocrine system
    Hypothalamus
  65. the most plentiful anterior pituitary hormone is the
    HGH Hormone
  66. What do F cells secrete
    Pancreatic Polypeptide
  67. where is the pineal gland
    • It is attached to the roof of the 3rd ventricle
    • It secretes melatonin and regulates diurnal rythms
Author
Bnasty
ID
337880
Card Set
Chapter 16
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Updated