AP Ch 2

  1. water has high ______
    Reactivity
  2. When water is involved in bond making it is called
    • dehydration synthesis 
    • (condensation reaction)
  3. Bond breaking
    hydrolysis 

    • hyro=water
    • lysis=cut
  4. a uniform mixture of two or more substances
    solution
  5. the ability of a substance to dispense in a solvent is
    Solubility
  6. a _____ consists of a solvent, or medium, in which atoms, ions, or molecules of another substance called a solute are individually dispersed
    solution
  7. _____ is the most common solvent in out bodies
    water
  8. water is a good solvent because it is a
    polar molecule
  9. Polar compounds _______ in water
    dissolve
  10. Ions undergo ______ or ________ in water
    ionization / dissociation
  11. water molecules form ________ around ions and other polar molecules to keep them in solution
    hydration spheres
  12. charged molecules, ions and polar molecules are _______ compounds that WILL dispense easily in water
    hydrophilic 

    • hydro=water
    • philos= loving
  13. uncharged molecules and non polar molecules are compounds that WILL NOT dispense easily in water
    Hydrophobic

    • Hydro=water
    • phobos=fear
  14. A solute that add hydrogen ions to a solution and is know is a proton donor is
    Acid
  15. A solution that removes hydrogen ions from a solution and is the proton acceptor is
    Base
  16. solutions with a pH equal to 7.0 
    equal H+ and OH-
    Neutral
  17. pH lower than 7.0
    High H+ concentration
    Acidic
  18. PH higher than 7.0 is ____
    • basic (alkaline) 
    • Low H+ concentration
  19. as pH goes _____ H+ goes _____
    down / up
  20. pH of human blood normally ranges from _____to ____?
    7.35 to 7.45
  21. If pH is too low it a physiological state call
    acidosis
  22. If pH is too high it produces a physiological state called
    alkalosis
  23. a solute that dissociates into cations and anions other than H+ and OH-
    salt 

    many salts like NaCl do not directly change pH and are considered neutral compounds
  24. The pH scale has an _____ relationship with H+ concentration
    inverse
  25. More H+ ions means _______ pH
    lower
  26. Fewer H+ ions means _______ pH
    higher
  27. Dissociate completely in solutions 
    Have a large impact on H+ concentration
    Strong acids and bases
  28. Strong acids ______ pH a lot 
    Strong bases ______p H a lot
    • lower 
    • increase
  29. Do not dissociate completely in solution 
    Hava a small impact on H+ concentration
    Weak acids and bases
  30. weak acids _____ ph a little 
    weak bases _____ ph a little
    • lower
    • increase
  31. compounds that stabilize the pH
    buffers
  32. The primary buffer in blood is
    sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
  33. elements that are covalently bonded

    contain H, C and usually O

    functional groups that determine chemistry 

    carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
    organic molecules
  34. one carbon ring
    monosaccharides
  35. glucose and fructose are
    monosaccharides
  36. two carbon rings
    Disaccharides
  37. sucrose lactose and maltose
    Disaccharides
  38. more than two carbon rings
    polysaccharides
  39. glycogen is a _______
    polysaccharide
  40. Two becomes ones is ________
    catabolism

    *think catastrophe
  41. primary role is to serve as energy source for the body
    carbs
  42. ________ releases the energy from covalent bonds found in carbs
    Catabolism
  43. Note:

    carbs contain carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio

    can be 3:6:3 4:8:4 5:10:5 etc
  44. two ________ can covalently bind through dehydration synthesis.
    monosaccharides
  45. when two monosaccharides bind this creates a single _________ and a molecule of water
    disaccharide
  46. chemical energy stored
    Endergonic
  47. a molecule of water can split a single ________ into two _________ through hydrolysis
    disaccharide / monosaccharides
  48. chemical energy is released
    Exergonic
  49. The polysaccharide _________ is an important sours of stored energy
    glycogen
Author
halvey
ID
337755
Card Set
AP Ch 2
Description
AP chapter 2
Updated