AP Chapter 2 The Chemical Level

  1. _______ resulting materials coming out of a reaction
    Products
  2. ______ starting material ex: atoms, ions, molecule
    Reactants
  3. The symbol of an element indicates one atom of that element.
    H...O...
  4. A single plus sign indicates a __________ with a charge of +1
    cation
  5. Synthesis Reaction: bonds are ______
    formed
  6. A single minus sign indicates an _______ with a charge of -1
    Anion
  7. Reversible Reaction: bonds are ______ OR _______ depending on the direction of the reaction
    broken,formed
  8. serous fluids of the pleura, pericardium and peritoneum are ________________
    water based
  9. water is an important ______________ in the body because it reduces friction
    lubricant
  10. ________ ability to make hydrogen bonds between its molecules
    water
  11. has the ability to absorb a great deal of heat
    water
  12. ________ has a high heat capacity
    water
  13. ion concentrations are carefully regulated by the ________, __________, and __________ systems
    digestive, urinary, skeletal
  14. __________ can seriously disturb vital body functions
    electrolyte imbalance
  15. _________ soluble inorganic substances whos ions will conduct an electric current in solution
    electrolytes
  16. hydrophobic includes ________ molecules
    uncharged
  17. hydrophilic includes ______ molecules
    charged
  18. phobos mean
    fear
  19. philos mean
    loving
  20. hydro means
    water
  21. ______________ compounds will not disperse in water
    hydrophobic
  22. _________ compounds will disperse in water
    hydrophilic
  23. many molecules are classified as _________ or __________ based
    hydrophilic, hydrophobic
  24. also form around an organic molecule containing polar covalent bonds.
    hydration spheres
  25. oxygen forms polar covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms.
    water molecule
  26. water molecules form ___________ around ions and other polar molecules to keep them in solution
    hydration spheres
  27. polar compounds ________ in water
    dissolve
  28. ions undergo ________ in water
    ionization
  29. water is a good solvent because it is a ________
    polar molecule
  30. ________ is the most common solvent in our bodies
    water
  31. describes the ability of a substance to disperse in a solvent
    solubility
  32. A ________ is a uniform mixture of 2 or more substances
    solution
  33. water is important in _________
    solubility
  34. when water is involved in bond-breaking, it is called ________
    hydrolysis
  35. when water is involved in bond-making, it is called ________
    dehydration synthesis
  36. water has high ________
    reactivity
  37. carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, inorganic acids/bases/salts
    inorganic compounds
  38. molecules NOT BASED on carbon and hydrogen
    inorganic compounds
  39. carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
    organic compounds
  40. molecules based on carbon and hydrogen
    organic compounds
  41. _______ and _________ can be classified as either organic or inorganic
    nutrients and metabolites
  42. _________ are molecules that can be made or broken down in the body through metabolism
    metabolites
  43. _________ are essential elements and molecules that are normally obtained from food
    nutrients
  44. metabolism deals primarily with ________ and matabolites
    nutrients
  45. __________ provides raw materials for anabolism
    catabolism
  46. _______ reactions are usually reversible
    metabolism
  47. energy is stored
    endergonic
  48. bonds are created
    synthesis
  49. __________ is when small molecules are just put together into larger ones
    Anabolism
  50. energy is released
    exergonic
  51. bonds are broken
    decomposition
  52. __________ is when large molecules are broken down into smaller ones
    catabolism
  53. describes the chemical reactions that occur within a living organism
    metabolism
  54. enzyme only
    catalyst made of protein
  55. all ______ cant start without help
    cells
  56. __________ is the amount of energy needed to get a reaction started
    Activation energy
  57. bond-forming reactions are ___________
    endergonic
  58. means work
    ERGON
  59. means inside
    END
  60. chemical reactions that store energy
    endergonic reactions
  61. bond-breaking reactions are __________
    exergonic
  62. means work
    ERGON
  63. means outside
    EX
  64. chemical reactions that release energy
    exergonic reactions
  65. all ________ are catalysts, not all _______ are enzymes
    enzymes, catalysts
  66. catalyst made of protein is called
    enzyme
  67. comes in many varieties including acids, metals, nanoparticles etc
    catalyst
  68. a substance that lowers the activation energy of reactions
    catalyst
  69. energy CAN only be transferred from one form to another
    First Law of Thermodynamics
  70. energy can NOT be created or destroyed
    First Law of Thermodynamics
  71. potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds
    chemical energy
  72. stored energy
    potential energy
  73. energy in motion
    kinectic energy
  74. power to do work
    energy
  75. defined as the movement of an object or a change in the physical structure of matter
    work
  76. AB+CD→A+B+C+D→AD+CB OR AB+CD→AD+CB
    exchange reaction
  77. A+B↔AB or AB+CD↔AC+BD
    reversible reactions
  78. AB→A+B
    decomposition reaction
  79. A numerical subscript following the symbol of an element indicates the number of atoms of that element in a molecule
    H²...O²...H²O...
  80. A+B→AB
    Synthesis reaction
  81. Exchange reaction: bonds are _______ AND ________
    broken,formed
  82. Decomposition Reaction: bonds are _______
    broken
  83. A number BEFORE the symbol of an element indicates more than 1 atom of that element.
    2H...2O
  84. In a ____________ new bonds are formed and/or existing bonds are broken
    Chemical Reaction
Author
rbernert
ID
337745
Card Set
AP Chapter 2 The Chemical Level
Description
Chapter 2 Chemical Level
Updated