PLS Midterm

  1. Ballot Initiative
    • voting directly on propositions raised by fellow citizens
    • often at state level
  2. Principal Agent Problems
    • principals "hire" agents to do a task for them, but the principal can't be sure the agent is acting faithfully
    • ex: a car mechanic or chef
  3. Confederation
    • system of shared powers between 2+ levels of government where subunit governments are independent of national government and can't be compelled to do anything
    • voluntary compliance
    • has serious collective action issues, inhibit achieving goals for common good
  4. Caucus
  5. Judicial Restraint
  6. Judicial Activism
    • rulings go beyond interpreting the law in order to promote their agenda
    • ideologies interfere with objectivity in rulings
  7. Minimum winning coalition
  8. Recall election
    state level voting during term of elected official  to vote them out of office
  9. Commerce Clause
  10. Dual Federalism
  11. Devolution
  12. Grants in aid
    state or local level, funds for special projects (school lunch program, new transportation, etc.)
  13. Federalist 51
  14. Line-item Veto
  15. Appellate Jusidiction
    • case was brought there on appeal by plaintiff or defendant after decision in lower level court
    • no new evidence or witnesses allowed
    • make decision based on the soundness of  procedures in lower level court decision
    • SCOTUS can have both original and appellate jurisdiction, depending on nature of case and parties involved
  16. Amicus curiae
    • briefs submitted by "friends of the court" (people who don't have a stake in the outcome)
    • letters supporting one side of the other, sometimes requested by Court from experts to write academically on matter
  17. Affirmative Action
  18. Party Discipline
    • Voting in line with your party to advance the general agenda of the party
    • without this, nothing would get decided because votes would be scattered
    • also can help avoid collective action problems
  19. Single-member Districts
    • "winner takes all"
    • 2 parties will always naturally happen
    • minority rule causes small party voters to want to vote for a big party
    • people also start voting against they don't like
  20. Writ of certiorari
    request of information by SCOTUS for case information if 4/9 justices approve to hear case
  21. Partisan model
    • party leaders control agenda and force members to vote a certain way
    • role of the rules committee
  22. Pocket Veto
  23. Pork barrel
  24. Party Whip
  25. Federalist 10
    • security under different factions
    • large factions unable to take away power from smaller ones
    • better off with reps for people rather than direct democracy
  26. Logrolling
  27. Minority Leader
  28. Reed's Rules
  29. Gerrymandering
    redrawing district lines so that a party can get a voting advantage
  30. Split referral
  31. Executive agreement
  32. Equal Protection
  33. Due Process
  34. Miranda Rights
  35. Collective dilemma
    • a situation where the goals of one individual conflict with those of the group
    • government can help solve these by creating rules; without these rules, chaos would ensue
    • ex: without government, services like police and firefighting would be upderprovided
  36. Signing statement
  37. Path Dependance
  38. Antifederalists
  39. Separation of powers
  40. Block Grants
    sum of money given by the national government; no limits on how it's spent, so long as the purpose fits in broad goals set by national government
  41. Prisoner's Dilemma
    strategic interaction where each party would be better off with cooperation, but each are incentivized not to
  42. Impeachment
  43. Executive order
  44. Original jurisdiction
    a court with this means the case originated in that level of court
  45. Elastic clause
  46. Divided government
  47. Jim Crow laws
  48. Defense of Marriage Act
  49. Civil Rights movement
    • primarily focused on black's rights
    • focused on unjust laws in south, signaled a movement away from courts
    • resulted in Civil Rights Act (1964) and Voting Rights Act (1965)
  50. Incumbency advantage
  51. Judicial review
    power to decide if law or act of government is constitutional
  52. Common law
    law described in documentation, judges have authority to declare how law is interpreted when deciding cases
  53. Dissenting Opinion
    • opinion written by justice in minority about why the minority disagrees
    • good for future reference with similar cases
  54. Federal court supremacy
    • based on SCOTUS clause, federal courts have authority to overturn state court decisions and decide their constitutionality
    • Fletcher v. Peck was first time SCOTUS declared state law unconstitutional
    • SCOTUS saw danger in different interps of same law and declared the need for authoritative court to coordinate single interp.
  55. Stare decisis
    • "stand by the things that have been settled"
    • basis for common law system
    • decisions in similar cases of the past will be referenced for precedent on how to rule on case
  56. Revenue-sharing
  57. Conference Committees
  58. Strict constructivism
    judge believes their role is to interpret the law based on the original intentions for writing the law
  59. moot
    • further legal action won't make much of a difference 
    • -ex: that one about a kid suing for college admission unfairness, and then getting accepted during lawsuit
Card Set
PLS Midterm