Lesions of the Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, Thalamus and Hypothalamus

  1. Lesions that are characterized by awkwardness of intentional movements
    Cerebellar lesions
  2. Lesions that are characterized by meaningless unintentional movements occurring unexpectedly
    Basal ganglia lesions
  3. Lesions in one cerebellar hemisphere gives rise to signs and symptoms that are limited to the ______ _____ of the body
    same side
  4. True/False: acute and chronic cerebellar lesions signs and symptoms are similar in nature
    FALSE

    They differ significantly from those of chronic lesions
  5. What is plasticity?
    when other areas of the central nervous system compensates for loss of function of another region (example: cerebellar)
  6. The following are characteristic of what disorders?

    Ataxia--Intermittent, jerky, poorly coordinated movements

    Dysmetria (past pointing)--overshooting the goal when reaching toward of an object

    Dysdiadochokinesia--inability to perform alternating movement regularly and rapidly (example: patient asked to pronate and supinate rapidly and the movements are jerky and slow and incomplete on the side of the lesion)

    Intention tremor--tremor occurs when fine movements are attempted
    Cerebellar disorders
  7. What are the two types of basal ganglia disorders?
    Hyperkinetic disorders--excessive and abnormal movements

    Hypokinetic disorders--lack or slowness of movement
  8. The following are characteristic of what disorders?

    Chorea--sudden, jerky and purposeless movements

    Huntington's disease

    Parkinson's disease
    Basal ganglia disorders
  9. The following are characteristic of what basal ganglia disorder?

    Choreiform movements--first appear as involuntary movements of the extremities and twitching of the face (facial grimacing), later more muscle groups are involved so that the patient is immobile and unable to speak or swallow

    Progressive dementia occurs with the loss of memory and intellectual capacity
    Huntington's Disease
  10. The following are characteristic of what basal ganglia disorder?

    deterioration of the substantial nigra and reduction of the release of dopamine, tremor (unintentional), bradykinesis (slowness of movement), difficulty in initiating and performing new movement (akinesia), movements are slow, face is expressionless, voice is slurred and swinging of the arms is lost, patient walks with a stoop and arms flexed and walks by taking short steps and is unable to stop
    Parkinson's disease
  11. Damage to the _____ and ______ will results in the loss of all forms of sensation, including light touch, tactile localization, and discrimination and muscle joint sense from the opposite side of the body
    ventral posterolateral (VPL)

    ventral mediolateral (VPM)
  12. Sensory loss usually results from thrombosis or hemorrhage of one of the arteries supplying the...
    thalamus
  13. spontaneous pain, which is often excessive and occurs on the opposite side of the body as the infarct
    Thalamic pain--seen in patients recovering from thalamic infarct
  14. Lesions of the hypothalamus can cause problems with the following (7)
    • Autonomic control
    • Endocrine function
    • Thirst center
    • Thermoregulation
    • Hunger and satiety centers
    • Circadian Rhythms 
    • Emotions and behavior
Author
arikell
ID
337588
Card Set
Lesions of the Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, Thalamus and Hypothalamus
Description
Anatomy
Updated