DHE120 Chapter 2 pg.32-49 Quiz#1 Quiz#2

  1. What are the body's responses to injury?
    • Inflammation
    • Immunity
    • Repair
  2. Injury
    An alteration in the environment that causes tissue damage or necrosis.
  3. Necrosis
    The pathologic death of one or more cells or a part of tissue, or an organ that results from irreversible damage to cells.
  4. Removal of foreign substances
    Flushing action of tears, saliva, urine, and diarrhea
  5. Antibacterial activity
    Enzymes in saliva and tears
  6. Mechanical defense
    Respiratory system’s cilia and mucus
  7. ____injury can affect teeth, soft tissue and bone.
    physical
  8. ___ injury can occur from the application of caustic substances.
    chemical
  9. ____ can cause injury by invading orofacial tissue and causing infections.
    microorganisms
  10. _____ can render orofacial tissue more susceptible to injury from other sources, and toxic overdoses of some nutrients can also cause tissue damage.
    nutritional deficiencies
  11. Innate (natural)defenses
    are present from birth and include intact skin or mucosa that acts as a physical barrier to injury. The process of inflammation an its white blood cells that are brought to the area of injury are innate responses to injury.
  12. clinical signs (cardinal signs) of inflammation include: localized
    redness, heat, swelling, pain and loss of the usual level of tissue function
  13. Inflammation
    • suffix -itis
    • Allows the body to eliminate injurious agents, contain injuries, and heal defects
    • A nonspecific response to injury that involves the microcirculation and its blood cells.
    • Extent and duration of the injury determine the extent and duration of inflammatory response.
    • local or systemic
    • acute or chronic
  14. Local
    A disease process that is confined to a limited location in the body that is not general or systemic
  15. systemic
    • Pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole, as well as a disease process pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.
    • Signs:
    • Fever
    • Leukocytosis
    • Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP)
    • Lymphadenopathy
  16. acute
    An injury or course of inflammation that is of sort duration.
  17. chronic
    • An injury or course of inflammation that is of long duration.
    • Caused by persistent injuries
    • Repair cannot be completed until source of injury is removed
    • Cells involved:
    • Macrophages
    • Lymphocytes
    • Plasma cells
    • Neutrophils
    • Monocytes
    • Fibroblasts
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  19. Inflammation: Sequence of Microscopic Events
    • Injury to tissue
    • Constriction of microcirculation
    • Dilation of microcirculation → hyperemia → erythema and heat
    • Increase in permeability
    • Exudate leaves microcirculation → transudate
    • Increased blood viscosity
    • Decreased blood flow
    • Margination and pavementing of white blood cells (WBCs) → chemotaxis
    • WBCs enter tissue → emigration → exudate and edema
    • WBCs ingest foreign material → phagocytosis
  20. microscopic events of inflammation
    • they involve the small blood vessels or microcirculation.
    • Can occur during acute and chronic inflammation
  21. Factors Affecting Amount of Scar Tissue
    • Heredity
    • Strength and flexibility needed in the tissue
    • Tissue type
    • Type of repair
    • Healing by primary intention
    • Healing by secondary intention
    • Healing by tertiary intention
  22. Types of repair:
    Healing by primary intention
    • Healing of an injury in which there is little loss of tissue
    • The margins are close together and very little granulation tissue forms
  23. Types of repair:
    Healing by secondary intention
    • The edges of the injury cannot be joined during healing
    • A large clot forms, resulting in increased granulation tissue
    • May result in excess scar tissue: A keloid
  24. Types of repair:
    Healing by tertiary intention
    • Delaying surgical tissue repair until infection is resolved
    • An injured area may become infected, especially with puncture wounds
    • In some situations, an infected injury is left open until infection is controlled
  25. microcirculation
    The small blood vessels, including arterioles, capillaries, and venues of the vascular system.
  26. Biochemicals mediators
    • chemicals in the body that activate responses
    • May be derived from:
    • Blood
    • Endothelial cells
    • White blood cells and platelets
    • Pathogenic organisms as they injure the tissue
  27. Hyperemia
    • An excess of blood within blood vessels in a part of the body.
    • Local clinical signs of inflammation are erythema and heat.
  28. Erythema
    redeness of skin or mucosa.
  29. Transudate
    Extravascular fluid component of blood that passes through the endothelial cell walls of the microcirculation.
  30. margination
    process during inflammation in which white blood cells tend to move to the periphery of the blood vessel at the site of injury.
  31. pavementing
    The adherence of white blood cells to blood vessel walls during inflammation.
  32. emigration
    The passage of white blood cells through the walls of small blood vessels and into injured tissue.
  33. exudate
    A body fluid with a high protein content that leaves the microcirculation during an inflammatory response that consist of serum that contains white blood cells, fibrin and other protein molecules.
  34. edema
    Excess level of plasma or exudate in the interstitial space that results in tissue swelling.
  35. serous exudate
    An exudate that has a watery consistency. The consistency resembles that of serum.
  36. purulent exudate
    An exudate containing pus or forming pus.
  37. abscess
    A collection of purulent exudate that has accumulated in a contained space formed by the surrounding tissue.
  38. fistula
    An abnormal passage that leads from an abscess to the body surface.
  39. chemotaxis
    The movement of white blood cells as directed by biochemical mediators to an area of injury.
  40. phagocytosis
    The ingestion and digestion of particulate material by cells.
  41. white blood cells
    The cells within the blood and surrounding tissue, also called leukocytes , that are involved in the inflammatory immune responses.
  42. neutrophils
    • The first white blood cell to arrive at a site of injury. primary cell involved in acute inflammation also called "polymorphonuclear leukocyte".
    • constitute of 60%to 70%
    • produced throughout life
    • mobile cells
    • function is phagocytosis of substances
  43. Two types of white blood cells involved in the inflammatory response are
    neutrophils and monocytes (macrophages)
  44. Kinin System
    • Active in early phases of inflammation
    • Activated by substances in plasma and injured tissue
    • Causes increased
    • Dilation of blood vessels at the site of injury
    • Permeability of local blood vessels
    • Induces pain
  45. Clotting Mechanism
    • Clots blood and mediates inflammation
    • Some of the clotting mechanism products that are activated during tissue injury cause local vascular dilation and permeability by activating kinin
  46. Complement System
    • Involves the production of a sequential cascade of plasma proteins
    • They are present in blood in an inactive form
    • A trigger (usually an antibody-antigen complex) initiates the sequence of steps
    • These plasma proteins function in inflammation and immunity
    • Some components cause WBCs known as mast cells to release histamine
    • Histamine causes an increase in vascular permeability and vasodilation
    • Other components cause cell death, form chemotactic factors for WBCs, and enhance phagocytosis
  47. macrophages
    • The second type of white blood cell to arrive at a site of injury that was originally a monocyte; it participates in phagocytosis during inflammation and continues to be active in the immune response.
    • Constitute 3% to 8% of WBC population
    • Single round nucleus and do not have granular cytoplasm
  48. Prostaglandins
    Cause increased vascular dilation and permeability, tissue pain and redness, and changes in connective tissue (CT)
  49. Lysosomal enzymes
    • Act as chemotactic factors
    • May cause damage to connective tissue and to the clot
  50. Endotoxin
    • Produced by cell walls of gram-negative bacteria
    • Serves as chemotactic factor; can activate complement, function as an antigen, and damage bone and tissue
  51. cytolysis
    The dissolution or destruction of a cell.
  52. opsonization
    The enhancement of phagocytosis by a process in which a pathogen is marked, with opsonins, for destruction of phagocytes.
  53. leukocytosis
    • An increase in the number of white blood cells circulating in blood.
    • Normal number of WBCs per mm3 of blood: 4000 to 10,000
    • In a systemic inflammatory response, the number increases to 10,000 to 30,000/mm3 of blood.
  54. lymphadenopathy
    The abnormal enlargement of a lymph node or nodes.
  55. fever
    • An elevation of body temperature to greater than the usual level of 37°C(98.6°F)
    • Controlled by the hypothalamus
    • Pyrogens
  56. pyrogens
    The fever-inducing substances produce from either white blood cells or photogenic microorganisms.
  57. leukopenia
    A decrease of white blood cells circulating in blood
  58. Waldeyer's ring
    The ring of lymphatic tissue formed by the two palatine tonsils, the pharyngeal tonsils, the lingual tonsils, and intervening lymphoid tissue.
  59. Antiinflammatory Therapy
    • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
    • Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
    • Ibuprofen
    • Steroidal antiinflammatory drugs
    • Prednisone
    • Antihistamines
    • Cancer treatment drugs
    • Methotrexate
    • Sulfasalazine
    • Leflunomide
    • Cyclophosphamide
    • Mycophenolate
  60. C-reactive protein (CRP)
    A nonspecific protein produced in the liver, that becomes elevated during episodes of acute inflammation or infection.
  61. granuloma
    A lesion composed of a collection of macrophages usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes that is form by of chronic inflammation.
  62. Hyperplasia
    An enlargement of a tissue or organ resulting from an increase in the number of cells, the result of increased cell division.
  63. Atrophy
    A decrease in size or function of a cell, tissue, organ, or entire body
  64. Hypertrophy
    An enlargement of a tissue or organ resulting from an increase in the size of its individual cells, but not in the number of cells.
  65. regeneration
    The process by which injured tissue is replaced with tissue identical to that present before the injury.
  66. repair
    The restoration of damaged or disease tissue by cellular change and growth.
  67. Fibroblast
    The cells that form fibers as well as intercellular substances.
  68. fibroplasia
    The formation of fibrous tissue as usually occurs in healing.
  69. angiogenesis
    The formation and differentiation of blood vessels.
  70. granulation tissue
    The initial connective tissue formed in healing.
  71. epithelialization
    The process of renewal of a new surface layer of ephithelium.
  72. myofibroblasts
    Fibroblast that have some of the characteristics of smooth muscle cells, such as the ability to contract.
  73. keloid
    The excessive scarring that mainly occurs in skin in some cases with healing.
  74. Factors delaying bone formation
    • Blood supply at site
    • Growth factors
    • Edema
    • Injury
    • Infection
    • Removal of osteoblast-producing tissuesExcessive or inadequate movement of bone tissue
  75. Factors influencing repair of bone
    • Nutrition
    • Age
    • Tobacco use
  76. osteoblast
    The cells that form bone.
  77. Systemic factors that impair healing
    • Malnutrition
    • Immunosuppression
    • Genetic connective tissue disorders
    • Metabolic disorders
  78. Local factors that impair healing
    • Bacterial infection
    • Tissue destruction and necrosis
    • Hematoma
    • Excessive movement of injured tissue
    • Poor blood supply
  79. necrosis
    The pathologic death of one or more cells, or a part of tissue, or an organ that results from irreversible damage to cells.
  80. demastication
    When tooth wear is increased by chewing and abrasive substances.
  81. Attrition
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    • Tooth-to-tooth wear
    • May be observed in both primary and permanent dentition
    • Bruxism
  82. Bruxism
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    • grinding of the teeth together for nonfunctional purposes.
  83. Abrasion
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    • pathologic wearing away of tooth structure or a restoration that results from repetitive mechanical habit. (toothbrushing)
  84. Abfraction
    appears as wedge shaped defect at the cervical area of teeth. (stress)
  85. Erosion
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    • Loss of tooth structure resulting from chemical action without bacterial involvement. 
    • Bulimia
    • Methamphetamine abuse
  86. Bulimia
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    • eating disorder characterized by binges, usually of very high caloric intake , followed by self induced vomiting.
  87. anorexia nervosa
    eating disorder, intense fear of gaining weight and self-imposed starvation.
  88. methamphetamine
    decrease salivary flow, craving for high sugar containing beverages combined with lack of hygiene care results in the extensive and rapid destruction of teeth that is called "meth mouth"
Author
dentalhygiene
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337575
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DHE120 Chapter 2 pg.32-49 Quiz#1 Quiz#2
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DHE120 Chapter 2 pg.32-49 Quiz#1 Quiz#2
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