12.5 13.4 14.4

  1. things that cause our senses to respond but also to assemble multiple sensory stimuli into a single mental picture or idea
    Sensory Stimuli
  2. awareness (our body cell’s tissue recognizes there is something different with the environment of our body outside or in)
  3. requires 4 processes: stimulation, transduction, conduction, & translation
  4. conscious Awareness
  5. type of Sensation
    Sensory Modality
  6. senses fine and crude touch
    General Somatic
  7. Senses internal Organs
    General Visceral
  8. Hearing & Balance
    Special Senses
  9. the conversion of stimulus to an electrical Signal
    Receptor potentials produced when stimulus is detected - influx of sodium ions
    Action potentials produced when threshold is reached
    Message conducted to CNS
    Sensory Transduction
  10. when stimulus remains but action potentials stop
  11. the two types of adaptation
    Rapid and slow
  12. free or encapsulated ending, or seperate cells (rods & cons in retinal)
    Microscopic Structure
  13. the word exteroreceptors, and interoreceptors refere to the different
  14. slow adapting; fine touch (1 hair in your face is fine touch but slow adaptor bc if cant find the hair then the receptor isnt going away
    Merket Cell Fibers
  15. Rapid Adaptatio; Fine Touch
    Meissner Corpuscles
  16. ending slow adapting; Stretch & movement ( Massage)
    Ruffini Endings
  17. rapid adaptation; vibration & Pressure
  18. free nerve ending at base of follicle (cat with wiskers trying to figure out info on external environment)
    Hair Follicle Receptors
  19. Not in skin; sense movement & position of joints
    located in muscle spindles tendon organs joints
  20. pertain to fine or discriminative touch
    Tactile Senses
  21. also called crude touch
    Lacks the fine spatial Resolution of the tactile senses
    Nondiscriminative touch
  22. what are the 4 processes that must occure in order for a sensation to be recognized
    Stimulation, transduction, conduction, and translation
  23. conscious awareness can also be known as
  24. the type of sensation
    Sensory Modality
  25. fine and crude touch
    General Somatic
  26. sensation of the internal organs
    General Visceral
  27. what are the special senses
    • vision
    • audition
    • gustation
    • olfaction
    • somatosensation
  28. when are receptor potentials produced
    what is released
    • When a stimulus is detected
    • Sodium ions
  29. when the stimulus remains but the action potentials stop
  30. what are the different types of adaption
    Rapid and slow
  31. where are exteroreceptors located
    near the outside of the body detect stimuli near the surface
  32. these detect stimuli from inside the body
  33. function: slow adapting; fine touch
    Merkel Cell Fiber
  34. function: rapid adaptation; fine touch
    Tactile Corpuscle
  35. function: detect Stretch and movement
    slow adapting
    bulbous corpuscle (Ruffini endings)
  36. function: senses vibration and deep pressure
    rapid adaptation
    Lamellated Corpuscle
  37. Free nerve endings at base of follicle
    Hair Follicle Receptors
  38. Not in skin; sense movement and position of joints 
    sometimes in muscles 
    muscle spindles tendon organs and joints
  39. increase axon diameter and myelination; proprioception
    Fast conduction
  40. Decrease axon diameter and myelination; Pain and tem
    Slow conduction
  41. ability to identify type and source of touch stimulus
    increases with and increase in density of small-field receptors
    Touch discrimination
  42. used to map sensory pathways
  43. sense pain
    info about tissue damage, disease symptoms
  44. Visceral Sensory information terminates in the
    Brainstem/ Diencephalon
  45. Somatic sensory information terminates in the
    Somatosensory cortex of cerebrum
  46. level of physiological activity present at all times
    Autonomic Tone
  47. needed to regulate variables within normal ranges
    Dual Innervation
  48. sensory information sent to the brain is integrated in the ______ were proper action is taken by the body
    Hypothalamus and other autonomic centers
  49. where are heart rate and fore of contraction control centers located
    In the brain stem
  50. Control the rate and depth of ventilation
    Dorsal and ventral respiratory group nuclei
  51. Controls most digestive processes
    Enteric Nervous System
  52. how is defacation controlled
    Parasympathetic function
  53. heat loss and heat gain center are located in the
  54. what is micturition
  55. center for micturition is located in the
    Pons of the brainstem
  56. send information to thirst centers in the hypothalamus
    Osmoreceptors and baroreceptors
  57. olfaction and gutation are what type of senses
    Chemical Senses
  58. where is the Olfactory Epithelium Located
    Covers the cribriform Plate, superior nasal conchae
  59. what do olfactory glands do
    Lubricate the surface
  60. what is the olfactory pathway
    • olfactory nerves
    • olfactory bulbs
    • olfactory tracts
    • cerebral Cortex
    • limbic sytem
  61. describe how olfaction takes place
    • Binding of an oderant to is receptor activates a g-protein. Once the g protein is activated it triggers adenylate cylase to convert ATP into Cyclic AMP or cAMP. cAMP opens ion channels that allow sodium and calcium ions to enter the cell triggering and action potential
    • detection threhold i low and adaptation occur quickly
  62. what are the classes of taste stimuli
    bitter, sour, salty, sweet, and unami
  63. combination of tastants, odorants, textures, and temp
  64. bump on tongue surface
  65. where are taste buds located
    In the grooves around papillae
  66. what are the 3 cranial nerves that carry impulses from receptors for gustation
    • vagus nerve
    • glossopharyngeal nerve
    • Facial Nerve
  67. Visible Light Energy Transduced into receptor Potentials
  68. how many extrinsic eye muscles are there
    6 per eyeball 4 rectus and 2 oblique
  69. 3 layers of the eye
    • Fribrous Outer layer
    • Vascular Middle Layer
    • Nervous
  70. reduces scattering of light rays
    Pigment in the eye and choroid
  71. Controls the amount of light entering the eye
  72. exit of optic nerve
    Optic Disc
  73. what are the two cavities within the eye
    • Anterior Cavity
    • Posterior Cavity
  74. ability of lens to change shape
  75. minimum distance from eye in which focusing is possible
    Near Point of vision
  76. refract or bend light rays
    Cornea and lens
  77. rays meet at the _____ to form and image
  78. nearsighted
    far objects distorted, rays converge in front of retina
  79. near objects distorted, rays converge behind retina
  80. irregular curvature of cornea, lens
  81. named for shape of outer segment and contains pigment
    Rods and Cones
  82. best in dim light, b&w vision, contain rhodopsin
  83. used for color vision
  84. area that can be seen by one eye
    Visual field
  85. area of overlap between visual fields
    Binocular visual field
  86. stem cells that eventually develop into olfactory neuron
    Basal Cells
  87. where in the brain do does olfactory information travel
    • the olfactory cortex in the temporal lobe
    • only sensory pathway that has no synapse in the thalamus
  88. each eyelid is stiffened by the
    Tarsal Plate
  89. what are the two part of the fibrous layer
    Sclera and Cornea
  90. the opening through which light enters the eye
  91. the most important part of the vascular layer, cantains many blood vessels and has pigment to reduce scattering of light
    responsible for red eye from camera flash
  92. changes shape of lens to focus light on the retina
    Ciliary Body and suspensory ligament
  93. what are the two layers of the retina
    the supreficial layer and the layer that contains photoreceptors
  94. if the cornea supplies light refraction what supplies fine light refraction
    The Lens
  95. when the eye is relaxed and focusing on a distant object this is known as
  96. when the length of the eyeball is normal
  97. when the eyeball is too short or the cornea i too flat
  98. when the lens becomes to hard and cannot focus on close objects 
    can be fixed with reading glasses
  99. when the eyeball is too long or the cornea curves to much
  100. what i the difference between photopin and opsin
    Opsin is found in rods while photopsin is found in cones
  101. what is bleaching
    The concepts that states when light hits rods they lose the ability to function until there is no light and reassembaly can take place. this process can take up to 40 minutes and allows us to see in the dark
  102. what is the path from the eye to the brain.
    Everything from the left side is processed in the right hemissphere while everything form the right side is process in the left hemiphere of the brain this information goes to the thalamus and is then relayed to the occipitol lobe
  103. responsible for your ear popping when you yawn
    The Pharyngotympanic tube
  104. which of the two fluids in the ear has a higher concentration of potassium ions than sodium ions
  105. which fluid in the ear has a higher concentration of sodium ions than potassium ions
  106. separates the middle ear and the inner ear
    Round window
  107. refers to maintaing balance when the head and body are not moving but the head is tilted
    Static equilibrium
  108. refers to maintaining balance when the head or body is undergoing angular motions
    dynamic equilibrium
  109. contain the receptor cells for head position and movement
Card Set
12.5 13.4 14.4