when secreated what hormone causes an OOcyte to mature?
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).
what hormone is secreted to as the menstral cycles preovulatory phase occurs?
LH is execreated throuout the cycle. when it stimulates ovarian cells, what hormones does it release?
relaxin-regulates the hemodynamic changes in the pregnant female.(increase CO, renal blood flow. it also relaxs the pelvic ligaments.
progesterone-maintains pregnancy. and helps prepare the body for conception. and usually regualte the bodys monthly menstral cycle.
what signals uterine contrations and labor?
prostaglandins and oxytocin
what are the three different layers of the fallopian tubes.
- outer- protects the tubes
- middle- smooth muscle to help move the ovum along
- inner- secratory cells and cilia to help move the oovum along and provide nutrition.
what makes the vaginal interoior acidic?
the breakdown of glycogen.
the low ph enviorment in there inhibits bacterial growth
before the egg is implanted into the wall what is the technical name for the cell?
*** it takes a week after conception for the egg to be implanted into the wall. will result in spotty painless bleeding.
what happens at two weeks after conception
the blastocyst evolves into embryonic disc. and the placenta begins to tap into the outer layer of the cell and this serves as the beginning to the umbilical cord
what happens after the thrid week after conception?
officially becomes a embryo.
the spine, central nervous system, and cardiovascular system all start to begin.
what happens in the fourth week of pregnancy?
the placenta develops and serves as a second liver and synthesizes glycogen and cholesterol. it metabolizes fatty acids.
- -provides respiratory gas exchange
- -execrete waste and produces antibodies.
what is the role of chorionic gonadotropin?
- - maintain pregnancy
- -stimulates the changes in the womans breasts, vagina,and cervix.
what should you do if the vagina hasnt stretched enough t deliver the baby?
apply gentle pressure to the new borns head to allow it time to stretch.
in the hospital the doctor would do a episiotomy.
what are the characteristics of the umbilical cord
cord is gray and has 2 arteries and one vein.
the Umbilical vein carries OXYGENATED blood from the placenta to the fetus.
both of the arteries carry carry arteriovenous blood to the placenta.
what causes heartburn and burping in pregnant females?
increased progesterone levels causes smooth muscles in the GI tract to relax.
how much blood can a woman lose during birth?
- 500ml- for normal birth
- 1000 for C-section.
what are the normal changes in blood for a pregnant female.
blood volume increases 40-50%, CO increase by 40%
-red blood cells increase in volume 33%
-clotting factors increase while fibrolynic factors are depressed.
what does lying supine do to the female?
lying supine can cause compression to the inferior vena cava, resulting in decreased venous return to the heart.
what is the standard birthing position for the mother? the lithotomy position.
the woman is supine with her knees spead apart and feet in stirrups.
what does progesterone do to the respiratory system of the pregnant female.
it decreases the medullary response center threshold to carbon dioxide.
it causes the bronchi to dilate.
regulates mucus production.
how do women develop gestational diabetes?
progesterone decreases insulin usage.
if spinal immobilization is nessacary how should you transport the pregnant female?
secure the woman to the board and elevate the RIGHT side of the board to prevent supine hypotensive syndrome
what are the parameters for contractions
- if more than 5 mins apart- load and go
- if less than 2 apart- delivery is imminent epecially for multipara.
how can you tell the gestational age by palpating the fundus and abdomen.
- above the symphisis pubis- 12-16 wks
- above belly button - 22 wks
- xiphoid- term
How do you manage a female undergoing supine hypotensive syndrome?
left lateral, vitals, ECG, O2
what are signs and symptoms of pre-eclampsia
- edema(face and ankles)
- gradual hyertention
- protein in the urine.
they can also have: headache, nausea and vomiting, agitation and weight gain. and visual disturbances.
what can chronic hypertention do to a fetus or mama?
retard growth and development. impair liver and renal functions. can cause pulmonary edema or life threating seizures.
what is the HELLP syndrome?
hemolysis and elevated liver enzymes, low platelets.
need immediate delivery
why does asthma complicate pregnancy
acute asthma attacks can cause hyoxia for the mom and the fetus.
what is the problem with hyper emisis gravidrum?
excessive vomiting causes dehydration and malnutrition.
symptoms are vomiting bile, nausea, pallor, jaundice. give benadryl if you can and 250 fluids.