- Tissues that surround the teeth Attaches them to the jaw bone.
- Around tooth.
- SUPPORTING TISSUES OF THE TEETH
- THE ATTACHMENT APPARATUS
Tissues of the Periodontium:4
- Periodontal ligament
- Alveolar bone
- Covers- cervical portion of the tooth and alveolar processes
- Holds tissue against tooth during mastication
- Composed of a thin outer layer of epithelium and an underlying core of connective tissue
Anatomical Areas of the Gingiva:4
- 1.Free gingiva
- 2.Gingival sulcus
- 3.Interdental gingiva
- 4.Attached gingiva
Upper edge (coronal) is the ______.
- Gingival margin
Lower edge (apical) is the _____.
- Alveolar mucosa
Depression that separates free and attached gingiva is the ______
- free gingival groove
Boundary visible clinically where pink gingiva meets red alveolar mucosa is the ______
- mucogingival junction
- Located coronal to the CEJ
- Surrounds the tooth like a turtleneck
- Fits snugly around the tooth but is not attached
- Can be pulled away from the tooth with a probe
- Forms soft tissue wall of gingival sulcus
Free gingiva tissue meets tooth in a thin, rounded edge called _____
the gingival margin
The ______ follows the contours of the teeth, creating a wavy outline
Attached Gingiva is between?
free gingiva and alveolar mucosa ATTACHED TO BONE!
attached gingiva is widest in?
Widest ------incisor and molar regions
attached gingiva is narrowest in?
Narrowest----- premolar regions
Attached gingiva is not measured on?
- Width not measured on palate because difficult to distinguish between palatal mucosa (no mucoging. junction)
Attached gingiva color is?
- Color is pale or coral pink
- May be pigmented
- More frequent in dark-skinned individuals
- Color ranges from light brown to black
Attached gingiva texture in health is?
- stippled Connective fibers that attach gingival tissue to cementum and bone
Functions of the attached gingiva?
- Functions to allow gingival tissue to withstand mechanical forces created during chewing, speaking, and toothbrushing
- Prevents free gingiva from being pulled away from tooth when tension is applied to alveolar mucosa
- Part of gingiva that fills the area between two adjacent teeth apical to the contact area
Interdental Gingiva consists of two interdental papillae called?
The Col is ?
- a valley-like depression interproximally directly apical to contact
- Absent if teeth are missing or recession is present
Function of Interdental Gingiva?
Function is to prevent food from becoming packed between teeth during mastication
- Space between free gingiva and tooth surface
- V-shaped shallow space around the tooth
Clinically normal sulcus is?mm
1 to 3 mm as measured by a probe
Base of sulcus is formed by?
- junctional epithelium
- Thin layer of hard, mineralized tissue that covers the surface of the root
- Light yellow
- Overlies the dentin
- Bonelike but more resistant to resorption than bone
- Does not have its own blood or nutrient supply
Functions of Cementum:
- Give attachment to collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament
- Without cementum the tooth would fall out of the socket
- Protects the underlying dentin
- Soft connective tissue that covers the root of the tooth and attaches it to the bone of the tooth socket
Periodontal Ligament is composed of?
- fiber bundles
- Sharpey’s Fibers
- Fibers attach to root cementum on one side and alveolar bone of tooth socket on other side
matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong collagenous fibers connecting periosteum to bone
**Five Functions of PDL
- 1.Suspends and maintains tooth in socket
- 2.Provides pressure and pain sensory feeling to tooth
- 3.Provides nutrients to cementum and bone
- 4.Builds and maintains cementum and alveolar bone of tooth socket
- 5.Remodels alveolar bone in response to pressure
- Surrounds and supports roots of teeth in upper and lower jaws
- Existence of alveolar bone is dependent on presence of teeth
- Extractions lead to bone resorption
LAYERS OF ALVEOLAR BONE:3
Alveolar Bone Proper (aka: Lamina Dura)
- Alveolus: bony socket that houses the root of the tooth
- Appears to have large pores where blood vessels connect structures
- Ends of periodontal ligament fibers are embedded in alveolar bone proper
- Layer of compact bone that forms the hard outside wall of jaws on facial and lingual
- Surrounds alveolar bone proper and gives support to socket
- Thinnest in incisor, canine, premolar area and thickest in molars
- Does not show up on radiographs
- Alveolar crest most coronal portion
- Spongy, lattice-like bone filler between cortical bone and alveolar bone proper
- Oriented around tooth to form support for alveolar bone proper
- Layer of connective soft tissue covering outer surface of bone
- Consists of collagenous tissue and an inner layer of elastic fibers