DHE119 chapter 1 The periodontium

  1. PERI-
  2. Odontos-
  3. Periodontium
    • Tissues that surround the teeth Attaches them to the jaw bone.
    • Around tooth.
  4. Tissues of the Periodontium:4
    • Gingiva
    • Cementum
    • Periodontal ligament
    • Alveolar bone
  5. Gingiva:
    • Covers- cervical portion of the tooth and alveolar processes
    • Holds tissue against tooth during mastication
    • Composed of a thin outer layer of epithelium and an underlying core of connective tissue
  6. Anatomical Areas of the Gingiva:4
    • 1.Free gingiva
    • 2.Gingival sulcus
    • 3.Interdental gingiva
    • 4.Attached gingiva
  7. Gingival Boundaries:
    Upper edge (coronal) is the ______.
    • Gingival margin
    • Image Upload 2
  8. Gingival Boundaries:
    Lower edge (apical) is the _____.
    • Alveolar mucosa
    • Image Upload 4
  9. Gingival Demarcations:
    Depression that separates free and attached gingiva is the ______
    • free gingival groove
    • Image Upload 6
  10. Gingival Demarcations:
    Boundary visible clinically where pink gingiva meets red alveolar mucosa is the ______
    • mucogingival junction
    • Image Upload 8
  11. Free Gingiva:
    • Located coronal to the CEJ
    • žSurrounds the tooth like a turtleneck
    • Fits snugly around the tooth but is not attached
    • Can be pulled away from the tooth with a probe
    • Forms soft tissue wall of gingival sulcus
    • Image Upload 10
  12. Free gingiva tissue meets tooth in a thin, rounded edge called _____
    the gingival margin
  13. žThe ______ follows the contours of the teeth, creating a wavy outline
    gingival margin
  14. Attached Gingiva is between?
    free gingiva and alveolar mucosa ATTACHED TO BONE!
  15. attached gingiva is widest in?
    Widest ------incisor and molar regions
  16. attached gingiva is narrowest in?
    Narrowest----- premolar regions
  17. Attached gingiva is not measured on?
    • Width not measured on palate because difficult to distinguish between palatal mucosa (no mucoging. junction)
    • Image Upload 12
  18. Attached gingiva color is?
    • Color is pale or coral pink
    • May be pigmented
    • More frequent in dark-skinned individuals
    • Color ranges from light brown to black
  19. Attached gingiva texture in health is?
    • stippled 
    • Connective fibers that attach gingival tissue to cementum and bone
    • Image Upload 14
  20. Functions of the attached gingiva?
    • žFunctions to allow gingival tissue to withstand mechanical forces created during chewing, speaking, and toothbrushing
    • Prevents free gingiva from being pulled away from tooth when tension is applied to alveolar mucosa
  21. Interdental Gingiva:
    • Part of gingiva that fills the area between two adjacent teeth apical to the contact area
    • Image Upload 16
  22. Interdental Gingiva consists of two interdental papillae called?
    • Facial
    • Lingual
  23. The Col is ?
    • a valley-like depression interproximally directly apical to contact
    • Absent if teeth are missing or recession is present
  24. Function of Interdental Gingiva?
    Function is to prevent food from becoming packed between teeth during mastication
  25. Gingival Sulcus:
    • žSpace between free gingiva and tooth surface
    • V-shaped shallow space around the tooth
    • Image Upload 18
  26. Clinically normal sulcus is?mm
    1 to 3 mm as measured by a probe
  27. žBase of sulcus is formed by?
    • junctional epithelium
    • Image Upload 20
  28. Cementum:
    • Thin layer of hard, mineralized tissue that covers the surface of the root
    • Light yellow
    • Overlies the dentin
    • Bonelike but more resistant to resorption than bone
    • Does not have its own blood or nutrient supply
    • Image Upload 22
  29. Functions of Cementum:
    • žGive attachment to collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament
    • Without cementum the tooth would fall out of the socket
    • Protects the underlying dentin
  30. Periodontal Ligament:
    • Soft connective tissue that covers the root of the tooth and attaches it to the bone of the tooth socket
    • Image Upload 24
  31. Periodontal Ligament is composed of?
    • fiber bundles
    • Sharpey’s Fibers
    • žFibers attach to root cementum on one side and alveolar bone of tooth socket on other side
  32. Sharpey’s Fibers:
    matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong collagenous fibers connecting periosteum to bone
  33. **Five Functions of PDL
    • 1.Suspends and maintains tooth in socket
    • 2.Provides pressure and pain sensory feeling to tooth
    • 3.Provides nutrients to cementum and bone
    • 4.Builds and maintains cementum and alveolar bone of tooth socket
    • 5.Remodels alveolar bone in response to pressure
  34. Image Upload 26
    Image Upload 28
  35. Alveolar Bone:
    • žSurrounds and supports roots of teeth in upper and lower jaws
    • žExistence of alveolar bone is dependent on presence of teeth
    • Extractions lead to bone resorption
    Image Upload 30
  37. Alveolar Bone Proper (aka: Lamina Dura)
    • Alveolus: bony socket that houses the root of the tooth
    • Appears to have large pores where blood vessels connect structures
    • žEnds of periodontal ligament fibers are embedded in alveolar bone proper
    • Image Upload 32
  38. Cortical Bone:
    • Layer of compact bone that forms the hard outside wall of jaws on facial and lingual
    • Surrounds alveolar bone proper and gives support to socket
    • Thinnest in incisor, canine, premolar area and thickest in molars
    • Does not show up on radiographs
    • Alveolar crest most coronal portion
    • Image Upload 34
  39. Cancellous Bone:
    • žSpongy, lattice-like bone filler between cortical bone and alveolar bone proper
    • žOriented around tooth to form support for alveolar bone proper
    • Image Upload 36
  40. Periosteum:
    • žLayer of connective soft tissue covering outer surface of bone
    • Consists of collagenous tissue and an inner layer of elastic fibers
Card Set
DHE119 chapter 1 The periodontium
DHE119 chapter 1 The periodontium DHE119 Perio