A&P Mid term 1-10

  1. levels of organization:
    • 2CT3O
    • 1. chemical
    • 2. cellular
    • 3. tissue
    • 4. organ
    • 5. organ system
    • 6. organism
  2. what is homeostasis
    • - a state of good health and proper functioning
    • - body is constantly responding to changes
    • - responses by the body keep body functions within normal limit
  3. what are the two Body Cavities
    dorsal cavity and ventral cavity
  4. what is including in the dorsal cavity
    • spinal cord
    • brain

    meninges line the brain and spinal cord
  5. what is included in the ventral cavity
    • the abdominal cavity
    • thoracic cavity
    • pelvic cavity
  6. planes and section:
    frontal (coronal) section
    separates front and back
  7. planes and section:
    sagittal sections
    separates into right and left

    midsagittal= creates equal right and left halves
  8. planes and sections:
    cross section
    plane perpendicular to the long axis of an organ
  9. planes and sections:
    longitudinal section
    plane along the long axis of an organ
  10. planes and sections:
    transverse section
    separates into upper and lower parts
  11. what are atoms
    smallest part of an element
  12. what are proton
    has pos charge; found in the nucleus of the atom
  13. what is a neutron
    has no charge; found in the nucleus of an atom
  14. what is an electron
    • has a neg charge; orbits the nucleus
    • allows atoms to bond and form molecules
  15. what is an ionic bond
    • forms salt
    • in solid state they are very strong
    • in water, many ionic bonds weaken
  16. what is cellular respiration
    • breakdown of food molecules to release ATP
    • purpose is to produce ATP from glucose in the presence of oxygen
  17. what is the formula for cellular respiration
    glucose + 6O2 => 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + heat
  18. nucleic Acids:
    what is DNA
    • double helix of double strand of nucleotide
    • function is to be the genetic code within cells
    • A-T, G-C
  19. Nucleic Acids:
    what is RNA
    • single strand of nucleotide
    • function is to protein synthesis
    • A-U, G-C
  20. Nucleic Acids
    what are Nucleotide
    • subunits of DNA and RNA
    • consists of phoshate group:
    • - pentose sugar
    • - nitrogenous base
    • ATP is a nucleotide, specialized to trap and transfer energy
  21. nucleic Acid
    what is the difference in DNA and RNA
    • RNA has the base Uracil
    • where DNA has Thymine
  22. Nucleic Acid
    what is a Genetic Code
    • genetic code or genetic material within cells is RNA
    • Genetic Material of the chromosomes of a cell is DNA
    • is a triplet code which means that= three bases on the DNA are the code for one amino acid
  23. what is a condon
    refers to the three bases on the DNA that are the code from one amino acid
  24. what is an Anticodon
    refers to the three bases on the tRNA that complement those on the mRNA
  25. what is a Transcripton
    is the coping of DNA by mRNA
  26. what is ATP (aka Adenosine triphosphate)
    • is biologically useful energy
    • ATP =>ADP +P (energy requiring cellular processes)
  27. Cell membrane
    what does selectively permeable mean
    • allow certain material in or out
    • forms the outer boundary of the cell
    • enables cells to respond to hormones
  28. cell organelles
    what are ridosomes
    • site of protein synthesis
    • found on rough ER and free
  29. cell organelles
    what are endoplasmic reticulum
    • transport materials within a cell
    • synthesizes lipids
  30. cell organelles
    what are golgi apparatus
    • synthesizes carbohydrates
    • "packing house" for secretion from cell
    • secretes cellular products
  31. cell organelles
    • site of ATP production/ cell respiration
    • it is the "powerhouse" fo the cell
  32. cell organelles
    contains enzymes ( centrioles - rode shape) to digest pathogen that enters the cell
  33. cell organelles
    sweep materials across surface
  34. cell organelles
    enable a cell to move ex: sperm
  35. cell organelles
    folds of the cell membrane, it increase surface area for absorption
  36. cellular transport
    • movement of molecules from area of greater concentration to lesser concentration
    • provided by free energy, or natural movement of molecules
    • permits gas exchanges in lungs
  37. cellular transport
    • diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
    • facilitated by salt concentration in cells
    • important= permits kidneys to reabsorb water 
    • important= small intestin absorb water by osmosis
  38. cellular transport
    facilitated diffusion
    • substances move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
    • requires carrier enzymes aka transporter
    • cells take in glucose by process of facilitated diffusion
  39. cellular transport
    active transport
    • molecules move from lesser to greater concentration area ( opposite of diffusion)
    • requires ATP
    • helps cell of small intestine absorb glucose and amino acid
    • in the nerve and muscle cells, the sodium pumps are an example of the process of active transport
  40. cellular transport
    • movement of water from higher pressure to lower 
    • energy for the process of filtration is provided by blood in the capillaries
    • forms tissue fluid and bring nutrients to tissue
    • requires energy by mechanical pressure vs ATP
  41. cellular transport
    • the process of a moving cell engulfing something
    • important to WBC to ingest pathogens, WBC are able to ingest or engulf pathogens by phagocytosis 
    • WBC digest pathogens by phagocytosis, pathogens are digested by lysosomes in the cells
  42. cellular transport
    • process of a stationary cell engulfing something 
    • cells of kidney to reabsorb small proteins
  43. Terminology of solutions
    • remain the same
    • ex: water in blood plasma, water inside RBC
  44. Terminology of solutions
    • a solution with lesser salt concentration than human cell is said to be hypotonic
    • human cell will take in water and swell if they are placed in a solution that is hypotonic
    • hypotonic solution has a lower salt concentration than cell
    • hypotoninc => swell and brust
  45. terminology of solutions
    • solution outside the cell is high in salt concentration
    • shrivel=> lose water, if placed in solution with higher salt concentration is hypertonic
    • solution with greater salt concentration than human cell
  46. cell division
    • -diploid, has 46 chromosomes, 2 cell
    • - one division produce 2 cells
    • -important for growth and repair of tissues
    • produces new RBC
    • replacing the stomach lining
    • replacing the outer layer of the skin.
    • - nerve cells are unable to undergo extensive mitosis
    • does not occur in muscle cells or neurons
  47. stages of mitosis
    • I/PMAT/C
    • interphase
    • prophase
    • metaphase
    • anaphase
    • telophase
    • cytokinesis
  48. stages of mitosis
    • time between mitotic division
    • when the chromosomes duplicate themselves
  49. stages of mitosis
    • chromosomes become visible as short rods
    • nuclear membrane disappers, chromosomes coil up
    • centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell
    • spindle fibers form between the centrioles
    • each chromosomes become visible as a pair of chromatids
  50. states of mitosis
    • pair of chromatids line up on the equator of the cell
    • the centromeres of the chromatid pairs divide
    • chromatids become separate chromosomes
  51. stages of mitosis
    • spindle fibers contract and pull the chromosomes apart
    • two sets of chromosomes are seperated
  52. stages of mitosis
    • nuclear membrane reforms around each new set of chromosome
    • cleaveage is form
  53. stages of mitosis
    • the cytoplasm divides
    • new cell membrane is formed
  54. what is meiosis
    • haploid, 23 chromosomes, 4 cells
    • takes place int eh ovaries and testes
    • production of egg and sperm cell with haploid number (23) of chorosomes
    • involves 2 divisions to produce 4 cell, each with the haploid number of chromosomes.
  55. what is oogenesis
    is the name of meiosis in the ovaries
  56. what is spermatogensis
    is the name of meiosis in testes
  57. what is apoptosis
    • in the cell cycle, a cell may undergo apoptosis
    • => cell will destory itself and die
  58. connective tissue type
    aka plasma aka matrix
  59. what does plasma of the blood connective tissue do
    • dissolved salts
    • has nutrients
    • waste products

    water of plasma consist of all these, they are to be transported within the body
  60. cells of the blood connective tissue
    cells are formed by hemopoietic tissue (blood making) red bone marrow and lymphatic tissue
  61. cells of the blood connective tissue
    carrys oxygen in blood; produce in the red bone marrow; transport oxygen bonded to protein hemoglobin
  62. cells of the blood connective tissue
    destory pathogens and provide immunity; some cells are produce by the thymus gland
  63. Areolar connective tissue type
    • aka loose CT
    • cells = fibroblasts= produce collagen fibers, very strong
    • fibroblasts aka protein collagen/ contains WBC to destory pathogens found between skin and muscle

    • found in tendons and ligaments
    • found in dermis of skin
  64. adipose connective tissue
    • cells adiocytes (fat storage)
    • stores potential energy in form of true fats
    • form cushion around the kidney and eye
    • between skin and muscle produce hormones influences appetite.
  65. fibrous connective tissue
    cells are fibroblast= cells made by collagen and elastin

    • regular fibrous sites- poor blood supply
    • tendons (muscle: bone)
    • ligaments (bone: bone)

    • irregular fibrous sites- good blood supply
    • dermis
    • fascia (membranes)around muscle
  66. elastic connective tissue
    • contributes to normal exhalation
    • help maintain bp around alveoli in lungs
  67. bone connective tissue
    • osteocytes are cells of bone, and are found in a matrix made primarily of calcium salts
    • protects some internal organs from mechanical injury
    • has good blood supply
    • body supported by bone
  68. cartilage connective tissue
    • chondrocytes are cells of cartilage, found in a matrix that has no capillaries
    • found in joints because it provides smooth surface
    • protein matrix is firm, but flexible
    • maintains open airway in trachea, shock absorber for discs between vertebrae.
  69. cartilage matrix vs. bone matrix
    • cartilage is flexible and smooth
    • bone is not flexible and smooth
  70. muscle tissue type
    • aka voluntary aka straited
    • tissues that moves the body/ skeleton
    • produce large amount of body heat
    • attaches to bone
    • must received nerve impulses to contract.
  71. smooth muscle tissue
    • aka visceral aka involuntary muscle
    • found in arteries and veins
    • contricts the pupil of the eyes
    • found in the uterus
  72. cardiac muscle tissue
    • aka myocardium/ cardic muscle
    • heart is made of cardic muscle, which pumps blood
    • purpose of nerve impulses to cardic muscle is to regulate only the rate of contraction
    • forms the walls of the chambers of the heart
  73. the skin
    • prevent entry of pathogens
    • outer layer of the skin
    • made of stratified squamous eithelial tissue
    • new cells of epidermis produce protein keratin (makes skin waterproof)
  74. stratum germinativum of the epidermis
    mitosis takes place continuously int eh stratum germinative to produce new epidermis.
  75. keratin of the epidermis
    • proteins in the epidermis, that prevent water loss
    • prevent water loss, entry of water and pathogens
  76. defensins of the epidermis
    cells in the epidermis produce antimicrobial chemicals
  77. langerhan of the epidermis
    • cells in the epidermis, that phagocytize pathogens
    • carrys ingested pathogens to lymph nodes
    • defensive cells in teh integumentary system
    • trigger immune response
    • orginiate in bone marrow
  78. stratum corneum of the epidermis
    • outermost layer of the epidermis
    • made of serveral layers of dead cells, which in turn are made of keratin
    • cells are called keratinocytes
    • cells diew after they produce keratin
    • if intact, the stratum corneum is a very good barrier to pathogens and water
  79. dermis of the skin
    • inner layers of the skin
    • contain sweat gland and sensory receptors
    • made of fibrous connective tissue
    • made of primarily of proteins (collagen and elastin)
    • collagen provides strength
    • elastin provides stretch and recoil
  80. hair follicle of the skin
    • has its base in the dermis
    • has a hair root at its base
    • has a pilomotor muscle that can pull the follicle upright

    function of human hair: keeps dust out of eye and nasal passages, insulation the head from cold

    hair root undergoes mitosis. hair is formed in a structure called follicle. hair shaft is made of keratin
  81. vasoconstriction
    decrease blood flow
  82. vasodilation
    increase blood flow
  83. what happens to the body in cold environment
    • arterioles in the dermis constrict to conserve heat
    • loss of body heat will be decreased
    • stimulates vasoconstriction in the dermis in order to conserve heat
  84. what happens to the body in warm enviroment
    • arterioles in dermis dilate to lose heat
    • vasodilation in the dermis is important to increase heat loss in a warm environment
    • blood flow through the dermis of the skin is increased by vasodilation in hot weather
  85. what happens to the body in stressful situation
    • arterioles in the dermis constric to permit blood to flow to the vital organs
    • blood is shunted to vital organs to vasoconstrict in the dermis
  86. types of bone tissue
    • red bone marrow
    • osteocytes
    • bone martix
    • compact
    • sponge bone
  87. what are osteocytes
    regulates the calcium metabolism of adult bone.
  88. bone matrix
    • the nonliving part
    • made of salts of calcium and phosphorus
  89. compact bone
    • made of osteons
    • make primarily shafts of long bones, forms the shaft diaphysis of a long bone.
    • blood vessels are fond in compact bone
  90. what are osteons
    • aka haversian systems
    • found in compact bones
    • contain osteocytes in rings of bone matrix
    • have good blood supply
  91. sponge bone
    • not made of osteons
    • make flat and irregular bones
    • made mostly the end of bones (epiphysis)
    • contains red bone marrow to produce blood cells
  92. red bone marrow
    • found in flat bones
    • produces RBC, WBC and platets
    • primary hemopoietic
    • all types of blood cell are produce by red bone marrow
  93. embryonic bone growth
    • produce bone matrix
    • the production of new bone matrix for growth or repair is a function of osteoblasts
  94. osteoclasts
    • reabsorb bone matrix
    • a function to readsorption of bone matrix to form marrow canal
  95. ossification
    • production of bone matrix
    • begins in the third month of gestation
  96. fontannels of an infant skull
    • are made of fibrous connective tissue
    • may be compressed slightly during birth without harming the brain
    • allow for growth of the brain after birth
  97. embryonic bone growth
    extra note
    • in the embryo, bones of the skull are first made of fibrous connective tissue
    • in the embryo, bone matrix is produced by cells osteoblasts
    • in the embryo frontal bone: 
    • first osteoblast comes from fibroblast
    • first osteoblast begin a center of ossification
    • first osteoblast secrete calcium salts
  98. what happens to the development of the skull before birth
    • calcification begins in the 3 month of gestation
    • osteoblasts differentiate from fibroblasts
    • ossification is not complete at birth
  99. simple fractures
    • aka closed
    • broken parts are still in normal position
    • skin is not pierced
  100. compound fractures
    • aka open
    • broken end of the bone has moved,
    • skin is pierced; permits entry of bacteria may causes osteomyelitis
  101. greenstick fractures
    • bone splits longitudinally, occur ore in kids
    • aka hair line fracture
  102. comminuted fractures
    • crush fractures
    • two or more intersecting break creat several bone fragments
  103. skull
    all of the joints between cranial bones are immovable joints call sutures.
  104. coronal sutures
    joint between frontal and parietal bone
  105. sagittal suture
    joint between the 2 parietal bone
  106. squamosal suture
    joint between temporal and parietal
  107. lambdoidal suture
    joint between occipital and parietal
  108. metopic suture
    • if present- not in adults
    • unities the 2 fontal bones
  109. the hip and leg
    • part of pelvic bone (hip bone)
    • flared, upper portion, form sacroiliac joint
  110. ischium
    • part of the pelvic bone
    • lower, posterior portion, part that we sit on
  111. acetabulum
    • part of the pelvic bone
    • deep depression that articulates with the femur

    deep socket form ball and socket joint with femur
  112. femur
    long bone of the thigh
  113. patella
    • aka kneecap
    • anterior to the knee joint
  114. tibia
    weight bearing bone of lower leg
  115. fibula
    not part of the knee joint, does not bear much weight
  116. ball and socket joint
    • permits greatest range of movement
    • shoulder and hip joint (humerus and scapula)
    • glenoid fossa and accetabulum
  117. myocytes
    • aka muscle fibers
    • specialized to contract, shorten and produce movement
  118. tendons
    • made of fibrous connective tissue
    • attaches muscle to bone
    • fibers of a tendon merge with the fascia of a muscle and the periosteum of a bone
  119. origin
    • immovable end of a muscle 
    • stationary
  120. insertion
    • movable 
    • contraction pulls the insertion towards the origins
  121. energy sources for muscle contraction
    • glycogen
    • creatin phosphate
    • glucose
  122. creatine phosphate
    in muscles, the waste product creatinine comes from creatine phosphate and is excreted by the kidneys
  123. glycogen
    • most abundant energy source from muscle contraction
    • - made of many glucose molecules
    • - cell respiration
  124. energy sources for muscle contraction
    is used to produced ATP
  125. muscle fiber microscopic structure
    • axon terminal
    • synapse
    • sarcolemma
    • sarcomeres

    • impulse is transmitted from the motor neurons by acetylocholine to the muscle fiber
    • - acetylocholine is inactivated by cholinesterase
  126. Axon terminal
    • end of the motor neuron
    • has acetylocholine
  127. synapse
    is the space between axon and sarcolemma
  128. sarcolemma
    • membrane of the muscle fiber
    • contains cholinesterase
  129. sarcomeres
    units of contraction within a muscle fiber
  130. nervous system divisions
    CNS and PNS
  131. CNS
    • central nervous system
    • brain and spinal cord
  132. PNS
    • peripheral nervous system
    • cranial and spinal nerves
    • relays info to and from CNS
    • includes the autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  133. synapses
    • nerve impulses change from electrical to chemical at synapse.
    • nerve impulses cross synapses by means of neurotransmitters

    ex; acetylcholine
  134. spinal nerves
    • 31 pairs
    • 8 cervical; supply diaphragm ( neck and arm)
    • 12 thoracic; supply wall of the trunk
    • 5 lumbar; supply hip and leg
    • 5 sacral; supply hip and leg
    • 1
  135. reflex arc pathway
    • receptor- detects a stimulus
    • sensory neurons-  carries impulses to CNS
    • CNS- contains one or more synapse
    • Motor neurons- carries impulses away from CNS
    • effectors- performs the reflex ( reflex is define as involuntary response to stimulus)
  136. occipital lobes
    funtion: visual area
  137. Characteristic of sensation
    • projection
    • intensity
    • contrast
    • adaptation
    • after-image
  138. projection of sensation
    • comes from area where the receptors were stimulated (touch)
    • ex: phantom pain- pain from a missing limb
  139. intensity of sensation
    some sensation felt more strongly than others
  140. contrast of sensation
    • the effect of a previous sensation on a current sensation
    • - effect of a current sensation may be exaggerated when brain compares it with a previous sensation
  141. adapation of sensation
    becoming unaware of a continuin stimulus
  142. after-image of sensation
    sitmulus stops, but we remain aware of the sensation.
  143. free nerve ending
    receptors for pain, itch, heat, cold
  144. encapsulated nerve ending
    receptors for pressure and touch
  145. cutaneous sense
    provides us with information about the external environment and also about the skin itself
  146. neurotransmitters
    transmitter release by all preganglionic neurons; both sympathetic and parasympathetic
  147. Neurotransmitters
    it inactivted acetycholine in post-ganglionic neurons
  148. referred pain
    pain that originates in an internal organ is felt in a cutaneous area
  149. utricle and saccule
    receptors that respond to gravity are located in urticle and saccule of the inner ear.

    utricle and saccule have receptors called hair cells, which are embedded in a gel with crystal called otoliths.
  150. endocrine glands
    are involved in the following bodily functions; growth/ repair of tissues and responses to stress; reproduction and otilization of food to produce ATP
  151. general hormone function
    • ADH- kidneys
    • oxytocins- uterus and breast

    • prolactin - breast
    • LH- ovaries and testes
    • FSH- ovaries and testes
    • TSH- thyroid
    • ACTH- Adrenal Cortex
    • GH- Bone and organ
  152. antidiuretic hormone
    • primary function of ADH is to increase reabsorption of water by the kidney
    • increase ADH will decrease urinary output, increase blood volumne. 
    • the direction stimulus for secreation of ADH is dehydration
  153. Testoterone
    • in men, LH stimulates secreation of testosterone by the testes
    • hormone that initiates sperm production in the testes in FSH
    • direct stimulus for secretion of testosterone => LH
    • two hormones secreted by the testes=> testosterones and inhibin

    - hormone necessary form maturation of sperm is => testosterone
Card Set
A&P Mid term 1-10
ch 1-10