VIsual examination of a body cavity or canal using a specialized lighted instrument called an endoscope
Visual examination of the organs of the pelvis and abdoment through very small incisions in the abdominal wall
Examination of the lungs, pleura and pleural space with a scope inserted through a small incision between the ribs
LABORATORY Complete Blood Count (CBC)
Common blood test that enumerates red blood cells, white blood cells an platelets; measures hemoglobin (the oxygen carrying molecule in red blood cells); estimates red cell volume; and sorts white blood cells into five subtypes with their percentages
Common urine screening test that evaluates the physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine
RADIOGRAPHIC Computed Tomography (CT)
Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from the different angles; formerly call computerized axial tomography. (the computer generates a detailed cross-sectional image that appears as a slice)
Ultrasound technique used to detect and measure blood-flow velocity and diretion through the cardiac chambers, valves, and peripheral vessels by reflecting sound waves off moving blood cells. (used to identify irregularities in blood flow caused by blood clots, venous insufficience and arterial blockage)
Radiographic technique in which x-rays are directed through the body to a fluorescent screen that displays continuousmotion image4s of internal structure. (used to view the motion of organs or to aid in the placement of catheters or other devices)
RADIOGRAPHIC Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Noninvasive imaging technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field rather than an x-ray beam to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images. (provides superior soft tissue contrast, allows multiple plane views and avoids the hazards of ionizing radiation)
RADIOGRAPHIC Nuclear Scan
Diagnostic technique that uses a radioactive material (radiopharmaceutical) called a tracer that is introduced into the body (inhaled, ingested, or injected) and a specialized camera to produce images of organs and structures. (a nuclear scan in the reverse of a conventional radiograph. Rather than being directed into the body, radiation comes from inside the body and is then detected by a specialized camera to produce an image)
RADIOGRAPHIC Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Scanning technique using computed tomography to record the positrons (positive charges particles) emitted from a radiopharmaceutical, that produces a cross-sectional image of metabolic activity in body tissues to determine the presence of disease. (PET is particularly useful in scanning the brain and nervous system to diagnose disorders that involve abnormal tissue metabolism, such as schizophrenia, brain tumors, epilepsy, stroke and Alzheimers disease as well as cardiac and pulmonary disorders)
Imaging technique that used x-rays passed through the body or area and captured on a film; also called x-ray.
RADIOGRAPHIC Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)
Radiological technique that integrates coputed tomography (CT) and a radioactive material (tracer) injected into the bloodstream to visualize blood flow to tissues and organs. (SPECT differs from a PET scan in that the tracer remains in the bood stream rather than being absorbed by surrounding tissue. It is especially useful to visualize blood flow through arteries and veins in the brain)
tom/o - to cut
graphy - process of recording
Radiographic technique that produces in image representing a detailed cross-section or slice of an area, tissue or organ at a predetermined depth. (includes CT, PET and SPECT)
RADIOGRAPHIC Ultrasonography (US)
Imaging procedure using high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) that display the reflected "echoes" on a monitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, echo and echography. (creates real time moving images to view organs and functions of organs in motion. Does not use ionizing radiation (x-ray), so it is used for visualizing fetuses as well as the neck, abdomen, pelvis, brain and heart)
Abnormal fibrous band that holds or binds together tissues that are normally separated
Substance analyzed or tested, generally by means of laboratory methods
Substance injected into the body, introduced via catheter, or swallowed to facilitate radiographic images of internal structures that otherwise are difficult to visualize on x-ray films.
Bursting open of a wond, especially a surgical abdominal wound
Feverish; pertaining to a fever
Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes or feedback and adjustments in response to external or internal changes.
Body defense against injury, infection or allergy that is marked by redness, swelling, heat, pain and sometimes, loss of function.
Diseased; pertaining to a disease
Branch of medicine concerned with the use of radioactive substances for diagnosis, treatment and research
Medical specialty concerned with the use of electromagnetic radiation, ultrasound and imaging techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury.
Radiological proctice that employs fluoroscopy, CT and ultrasound in nonsurgical treatment of various diseases
Use of ionizing radiation in the treatment of cancer; also called radiation oncology
Substances that emit radiation spontaneously; also called tracers
Radionuclide attached to a protein, sugar or other substance used to visualize an organ or area of the body that will be scanned
Term used to desccribe a computerized image by modality (such as CT, MRI and nuclear imaging) or by structure (such as thyroid and bone)
Pathological state, usually febrile, resulting from the presence of microorganisms or their products in the bloodstream.
Producing or associated with generation of pus
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis.
BIOPSY Frozen Section
Ultra-thin slice of tissue cuct from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe.
Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow instrument (punch)
Removal of tissue using a surgical blade to shave elevated lesions
Removal of a part, pathway or function by surgery, chemical destruction, electocautery, freezing or radio frequency (RF)
Surgical joining of two ductxs, vessels or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
Destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat or corrosive chemicals
Scraping of a body cavity with a spoon-shaped instrument calla a currette (curet)
incision and drainage (I&D)
Incision made to allow the free flow or withdrawal of fluids from a wound or cavity.
Surgical technique employing a device that emits intense heat and power at close range to cut, burn, vaporize or destroy tissues
Surgical removal of tissue in an extensive area surrounding the surgical site in an attempt to excise all tissue that may be malignant and decrease the change of recurrence.
Partial excision of a bone, organ or other structure