Digital Radiography 1

  1. In medicine, digital imaging was first used in what modality?:
  2. Who introduced CT and when?:
    Godfrey Hounsfield in the 70's:
  3. What is the basic definition of digital imaging?:
    Any imaging acquisition process that produces an electronic image that can be viewed and manipulated on a computer:
  4. The first commercial CT scanners were made to image:
    The head only:
  5. MRI was introduced commercially for health care in:
    The early 1980's:
  6. What does PACS stand for?:
    Picture Archival and Communication System:
  7. Early PACS were developed by:
    The US Military in an effort to move images among Veterans Administration hospitals and battlefield images to establish hospitals:
  8. To provide the early PACS a digital image, what had to be done?:
    Analog radiographs were scanned into a computer and digitized:
  9. What is the digital acquisition modality that uses storage phosphor plates to produce projection images?:
    Computed Radiography, or Cassette-based DR:
  10. When and by what company was CR first introduced in the United states?:
    1983 by Fuji Medical Systems of Japan:
  11. What uses an x-ray absorber material coupled to a flat panel detector or a charged coupled device to form an image?:
    Digital Radiography (cassette-less):
  12. Two categories of DR:
    Direct and Indirect Capture:
  13. Which category of DR absorbs x-rays and convert them into light and then into an electrical signal?:
    Indirect Capture Radiography:
  14. Which category of DR converts the incident x-ray energy directly into an electrical signal?:
    Direct Capture Radiography:
  15. Unlike conventional and CR, what must happen to an x-ray room for DR?:
    A detector replaces the Bucky in both the table and wall stand:
  16. What kind of plate is placed inside the cassette for CR?:
    A photostimulable phosphor plate:
  17. In CR, how is the latent image released?:
    Focused laser light is scanned over the plate causing electrons to return to their original state and emitting light in the process:
  18. Why is the exposure latitude very wide in CR and DR?:
    Because a single detector can be sensitive to a wide range of exposures:
  19. Regarding scatter, CR and DR are:
    more sensitive than screen/film:
  20. What is PACS?:
    A networked group of computers, servers, and archives that can be used to manage digital images:
  21. What does DICOM stand for?:
    Digital Imaging Communications in Medicine:
  22. What is DICOM?:
    Standards that allow imaging modalities and PACS to communicate in the same 'language':
  23. Where and when was the first full-scale PACS installed in the US?:
    At the VA Medical Center in Baltimore, 1993:
  24. The brain of the computer is:
    The central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor:
  25. Where is the CPU, or microprocessor found?:
    It is a small chip on the motherboard:
  26. What two companies manufacture microprocessors?:
    Intel and Advanced Micro Devices:
  27. What are the basic tasks of the CPU?:
    To read data from storage, manipulate data, and move the data back to storage or send it to external devices:
  28. When was the first microprocessor placed in a computer?:
    1979, by Intel 8088:
  29. The basic input/output system (BIOS) runs what?:
    The start-up diagnostics on the system to make sure all peripherals are running properly. Is the intermediary between the operating system and the hardware:
  30. RAM is what?:
    Short term storage for an open program:
  31. What does CMOS stand for?:
    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor:
  32. What is the purpose of CMOS?:
    It is a special type of memory chip that uses a small rechargeable battery to retain information about the PC's hardware while the computer is turned off:
  33. What are the two major types of monitors?:
    Cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD). Plasma on the rise:
  34. What is the basic picture element on a display?:
  35. What is a grouping of one red dot, one green dot, and one blue dot?:
    A dot triad:
  36. The number of pixels on a display is known as it's:
  37. Pixels are arranged in a rectangular or square table of numbers that represents the pixel intensity to be displayed on a monitor known as:
    A matrix:
  38. What is the measurement of how close the dots are located to one another within a picture?:
    Dot pitch:
  39. What is the measure of how fast the monitor rewrites the screen or the number of times that the image is redrawn on the display each second?:
    Refresh rate:
  40. What is the term for the ration of the width of a monitor to the height of the monitor?:
    Aspect Ratio:
  41. How is the viewable area on a monitor measured?:
    Diagonally from one corner to the other:
  42. A cathode ray tube is comparable to:
    An x-ray tube:
  43. How does and LCD monitor produce images?:
    By shinning or reflecting light through a layer of liquid crystal and a series of color filters:
  44. What are plasma displays made up of?:
    Many small fluorescent lights that are illuminated to form the color of an image:
  45. What is an operating system?:
    the software that controls the computer hardware and acts as a bridge between applications and the hardware.:
  46. Which OS is used to control specific machinery or scientific instruments such as digital x-ray consoles?:
    Real-time OS:
  47. Which OS is designed so that a computer can effectively do one task for one person at a time, such as a hand-held device?:
    Single user, single task:
  48. Which OS is designed for one user to perform multiple functions at the same time, such as on a PC?:
    Single user, multi task:
  49. Which OS is designed to handle multiple users and multiple tasks at the same time, such as UNIX:
  50. What does GUI stand for?:
    Graphical user interface:
  51. What is the GUI?:
    An icon based program where the mouse is used to point and click on the function needed to be performed:
  52. What is a LAN?:
    Local area network; a small geographical area:
  53. What is a WAN?:
    Wide area network; spans a large area such as a city, state, nation, continent, or the world:
  54. Describe a peer-to-peer network:
    Each computer on the network is considered equal; no computer has ultimate control over another:
  55. Why does peer-to-peer have a limited scope?:
    Because the maximum number of peers that should be connected is 10:
  56. Describe a server-based network:
    A centralized computer controls the operations, files, and sometimes the programs of the computers attached to the network:
  57. How is a client-based network different from a server-based network:
    They are esentially the same except that the server returns only the results back to the client:
  58. Who developed DICOM and when?:
    the American College of Radiology and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association in 1985:
  59. What is HL-7?:
    The standard that oversees most clinical and administrative data such as demographics, reports, claims, and orders:
  60. HL-7 is generally used in communication between:
    Hospital Information System (HIS) and Radiology Information System (RIS):
Card Set
Digital Radiography 1
Digital Radiography Ch1-3