Biology Semester Test (Study Guide)pt. 5

  1. A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called...
    monomers
  2. Which of the following is not a macromolecule...





    A. nucleotide
  3. A __ is a basic unit of a carbohydrate...
    monosacharide
  4. ORGANIC COMPOUNDS that are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio are called...
    sugars
  5. STARCH and CELLULOSE are ALIKE in that both are...
    contain non-polar, fatty acid side chains
  6. A carbohydrate (polysaccharide) that is formed by plants and used later by the plant as a reserve food supply and made of only glucose molecules covalently bonded together is...
    starch
  7. A CARBOHYDRATE (polyscaccharide) that makes PLANT CELLS and tissues STRUCTURALLY RIGID is:
    cellulose
  8. In a lipid bilayer ___ tails point inward and form a region that excludes water.
    hydrophobic
  9. What type of LIPIDS are found in ALL biologoical MEMBRANES?
    phospholipids
  10. Amino acids are the building blocks for...
    proteins
  11. The sequence of amino acids is the _____ structure of proteins.
    primary
  12. Of the following functional groups, which in is known as the AMINO GROUP?





    E. -NH2
  13. Nucleotides are building blocks for...
    RNA
  14. Nucleotides contain ____ sugars.
    five-carbon sugars
  15. DNA and RNA are examples of which FAMILY of BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES?
    nucleic acids
  16. Nucleotides are composed of a(an): A. AMINO ACID, B. NITROGEN-CONTAINING BASE, C. FATTY ACID, D. 5-CARBON SUGAR, and E. PHOSPHATE MOLECULE...
    • B. Nitrogen-containing base
    • D. 5-carbon sugar
    • E. phosphate molecule
  17. Which type of energy transformation occurs in photosynthesis?
    light to chemical
  18. The potential energy of organic molecules is most readily available to cells in the form of...
    ATP
  19. What could be used to monitor the rate of photosynthesis in a plant?
    oxygen production
  20. Respiration take place in the...
    mitochondria
  21. Fermentation of glucose by yeast produces...
    ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide
  22. Aerobic cellular respiration requires an adequate supply of...
    oxygen
  23. What gas is given off during cellular respiration?
    carbon dioxide
  24. Two reactants that are used in the process of photosynthesis are...
    water and carbon dioxide
  25. Carbon dioxide is converted into carbohydrates during the...
    Calvin Cycle
  26. Name the four biological macromolecules...

    1. 
    2.
    3.
    4.
    • 1. carbohydrate 
    • 2. lipid
    • 3. protein
    • 4. nucleic acid
  27. What are the elements and element ratio for the macromolecule, carbohydrate?
    • (CHO) Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
    • 1:2:1
  28. What are the elements for the macromolecule, lipids?
    (CHO) Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
  29. What are the elements for the the macromolecule, protein?
    • (CHON)
    • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen
  30. What are the elements for the macromolecule, nucleic acids?
    • (CHONP)
    • Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
  31. What is the function for the macromolecule, carbohydrates?
    • -high quick energy
    • -short term energy storage
    • -structure in energy walls (cells)
  32. What is the function for the macromolecule, lipids?
    • -insulation 
    • -store energy
    • -some are important parts of biological membranes
    • -waterproof coverings
    • -long term energy
    • -cusions organs
  33. What is the function for the macromolecule, protein?
    • -muscle building
    • -enzymes
    • -growth and repair
    • -fights diseases
  34. What is the function for the macromolecule, nucleic acids?
    • -genetic information
    • -instructions for proteins
  35. What is the monomer/polymer for the macromolecule, carbohydrates?
    • (Monomer)
    • Monossacharide
    •      Ex. glucose
    • (Polymer)
    • Polysacharide 
    •      Ex. starch
  36. What is the monomer/polymer for the macromolecule, lipids?
    • (Monomer)
    • Triacylglycerosis
    •      Ex. fatty meats
    • (Polymer)
    • Glycerol
    •      Ex. vegetables
  37. What is the monomer/polymer for the macromolecule, proteins?
    • (Monomer)
    • Polypeptide
    •      Ex. amalin
    • (Polymer)
    • Amino Acid
    •      Ex. lean meat
  38. What is the monomer/polymer for the macromolecule, nucleic acids?
    • (Monomer)
    • Nucleotide
    •      Ex. yeast extract
    • (Polymer)
    • Polynucleotide
    •      Ex. DNA and RNA
  39. Give at least three examples of the macromolecule, carbohydrates.
    -Glycogen (Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.)

    -Chitin (a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans and insects)

    -Cellulose (an insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton.)

    -Glucose (a type of sugar you get from foods you eat, and your body uses it for energy.)

    -Fructose (found in fruit, honey, and corn syrup used in soft drink and food production)

    -Glactose (not usually found in nature but exists mostly as a unit of the disaccharide lactose which is found in nature)

    -Sucrose (table sugar)

    -Lactose (primary sugar found in milk and milk products)

    -Maltose (commonly used in the production of alcohols)
  40. Give at least three examples of the macromolecule, nucleic acids...
    -RNA (mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA)

    -DNA
  41. Give at least three examples of the macromolecule, proteins...
    -Hemoglobin (carries oxygen in blood)

    -Antibodies

    -Keratin (forms hair and finger nails)
  42. Give at least three examples of the macromolecule, lipids...
    -cooking oils (such as olive, corn, and canola oil)

    -butter

    -cholesteral

    -steroids (know)

    -fats

    -waxes
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Biology Semester Test (Study Guide)pt. 5
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Fear keeps us focused on the past or worried about the future. If we can acknowledge our fear, we can realize that right now we are okay. Right now, today, we are still alive, and our bodies are working marvelously. Our eyes can still see the beautiful sky. Our ears can still hear the voices of our loved ones. Thich Nhat Hanh
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