Philosophy: Ethics

  1. According to Miller vs. California, one of the conditions material must satisfy to be considered obscene is:

    D) the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
  2. Justice Douglas articulated the dissenting opinion in the Miller vs. California case. Douglas claimed that:

    D) There are no constitutional guidelines for deciding what is and is not obscene.
  3. Catharine MacKinnon is fiercely opposed to pornography because she thinks that:

    D) All of the above.
  4. According to MacKinnon, what is the difference between obscenity and pornography?

    B) Obscenity is an ideational and abstract moral idea, whereas pornography is a concrete and substantive political practice.
  5. The Attorney General's Commission on Pornography argued that pornography is:

    B) a secondary harm.
  6. The Attorney General's Commission on Pornography claimed the research it conducted demonstrated that:

    C) both a and b
  7. Wendy McElroy strongly disagrees with the gender feminist approach to pornography because:

    D) All of the above.
  8. McElroy thinks that the research which purports to show a causal link between pornography and violence toward women is:

    C) both a and b
  9. One recurring issue in the readings for this week is whether or not pornography degrades women. What does McElroy think about this issue?

    D) She believes that the idea that women who participate in pornography are incapable of giving meaningful, informed consent is more degrading to women than any form of pornography.
  10. McElroy claims that there is a high correlation between the number of doctors in a city and the amount of alcohol consumed there. She mentions this fact to:

    B) to illustrate that correlation does not imply causation.
  11. In the landmark case Roe vs. Wade, the majority opinion was that:

    B) any attempt by the government to restrict or abolish abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy is unconstitutional.
  12. One of the major philosophical issues in the abortion debate concerns whether or not the fetus is a person. In Roe vs. Wade, the Court believed:

    D) the Constitution does not consider unborn humans to be persons.
  13. Thomson's "unconscious violinist" thought experiment is supposed to show that:

    A) abortion is morally permissible if pregnancy results from rape.
  14. After examining several different ways the "right to life" can be understood, Thomson ultimately concludes that the right to life means:

    C) the right not to be killed unjustly.
  15. Thomson opposes the "extreme view" on abortion because:

    D) both a and b
  16. Mary Anne Warren thinks that Thomson's unconscious violinist analogy does not sufficiently defend abortion because:
    c) the analogy presupposes that a fetus is a person.
    a) the reasoning behind the analogy only apply to cases in which women freely choose to become pregnant.
    d) the argument presupposes that abortion is murder.
    b) the reasoning behind the analogy only apply to cases in which women become pregnant due to rape.
    b) the reasoning behind the analogy only apply to cases in which women become pregnant due to rape.
  17. According to Warren, what is the difference between humans and persons?

    B) being human is strictly a matter of genetics - if you have human DNA, then you are a human - but personhood requires certain intellectual properties, such as self-awareness, consciousness, and reasoning.
  18. A serious objection to Warren's position is that it seems to justify infanticide. She responds to this objection by arguing:

    D) all of the above.
  19. Don Marquis' position regarding abortion implies that:

    D) none of the above.
  20. Like Marquis, Alexander Pruss argues that:

    B) killing a fetus deprives it of its future.
  21. One of the central issues in Matter of Quinlan was an individual's right to privacy and the extent of this right. The Supreme Court of New Jersey claimed:

    B) some aspects of personal privacy are protected by the Constitution, even though the latter never explicitly discusses the right to privacy.
  22. The Supreme of Court of New Jersey argued that individual privacy rights can override the State's interests in the preservation of human life if:

    D) both a and b
  23. According to Gay-Williams, the difference between euthanasia and passive euthanasia is:

    A) in euthanasia, a person is deliberately killed, but in passive euthanasia, a person dies without being killed.
  24. In the argument from self-interest, Gay-Williams claims:

    D) none of the above.
  25. To support the argument from mercy, Rachels uses:

    B) Utilitarianism.
  26. Rachels responds to the possibility of unexpected cures by arguing:

    D) all of the above.
  27. The purpose of the Amici Curiae written by six well-known American philosophers was to argue that:

    D) the interests of the State do not justify a condemnation of all instances of euthanasia.
  28. The six philosophers who wrote the Amici Curiae disagreed with the Solicitor General's argument because:

    D) all of the above.
  29. Chief Justice Rehnquist believed that the arguments put forward by the six philosophers in their amici curiae:

    B) are inconsistent with centuries of legal tradition, precedents, and policies.
  30. Rehnquist objected to euthanasia on the grounds that:

    D) all of the above.
  31. Beccaria argued that capital punishment is neither necessary nor useful because:

    D) all of the above.
  32. In On Crimes and Punishments, Beccaria approaches capital punishment from the perspective of:

    A) Social Contract Theory and Utilitarianism.
  33. Justice Brennan claimed that the death penalty:

    C) violates human dignity by depriving the victim of "the right to have rights."
  34. The majority opinion in Gregg v. Georgia was that:

    D) both a and b.
  35. Ernest van den Haag is well aware that research has not decisively proven that capital punishment is a deterrent. Despite this, he argues that people should advocate it anyway, because:

    B) opposing the death penalty involves preferring the deaths of innocent people over the death of a convicted murderer, and such a preference cannot be rationally or morally defended.
  36. Van den Haag claims that there are certain special cases in which death is the only punishment that could possibly have any effect. One such special case involves:

    B) criminals who have already been sentenced to life in prison.
  37. When Bedau discusses the deterrent value of the death penalty, he argues that:

    D) capital punishment fails to act as a deterrent because it is not consistently and promptly administered.
  38. The data Bedau discusses in his essay indicates that:

    A) the current legal procedures regarding the death penalty unfairly discriminate against minorities and the poor.
  39. Sunstein and Vermeule argue that the act vs. omission distinction does not apply to government because:

    D) all of the above.
  40. A common objection to the death penalty is that is error-prone, arbitrary, and discriminatory. When Sunstein and Vermeule discuss this objection, they:

    D) both a and c.
  41. In Bowers vs. Hardwick, Justice White discusses the possession and use of illegal drugs in order to:

    C) argue that homosexual behavior, like the possession and use of drugs, can still be prosecuted even if it occurs in the privacy of one's home.
  42. According to Justice Kennedy, the Court's reliance on historical analysis in the Bowers case was flawed because:

    D) all of the above.
  43. The majority opinion in the Goodridge case argued that denying same-sex couples the ability to marry violates their right to privacy that is implicit in the due process clause of:

    D) the 14th Amendment.
  44. The Department of Public Health denied marriage licenses to same sex couples because:

    C) same-sex marriages cannot accomplish the fundamental purpose of marriage, which the Department believes is procreation.
  45. According to the dissenting opinion in the Goodrich case,

    D) marrying someone of the opposite sex is a fundamental right, but marrying someone of the same sex is not.
  46. Kurtz argues that the purpose of the taboo on homosexuality is to:

    B) protect traditional marriage.
  47. According to Kurtz, legalizing same-sex marriage will:

    D) destroy the taboo on adultery.
  48. The Grand Inquisitor view:

    B) is the position that, according to Koppleman, Kurtz and Gallagher express in their writings.
  49. Gallagher believes that:

    B) there is a strong connection between procreation, childrearing, and marriage.
  50. The court in the Goodrich case established a legal precedent that theoretically enables fathers in traditional marriages to shirk their legal responsibilities to their children. What was this precedent?

    B) the court changed the name of "presumption of paternity" to "presumption of parentage."
  51. Speciesism is:

    A) a prejudice or attitude of bias toward the interests of members of one's own species and against those members of another species.
  52. The Peter Singer text begins with an anecdote about Thomas Taylor's attempt to refute Mary Wollstonecraft's argument that men and women should have equal rights. When discussing Taylor's objection, Singer:

    D) argues that Taylor failed to realize that the principle of equality requires equal consideration, not equal treatment.
  53. Singer believes that the property something has to have to be worthy of moral consideration is:

    B) the capacity to suffer.
  54. Singer compares speciesism to:

    D) sexism and racism.
  55. According to Tom Regan, some goals of the animal rights movement should include:

    D) all of the above.
  56. The ethical theory Tom Regan defends is:

    D) the rights view.
  57. Regan claims that for something to have inherent value, it must:

    C) be the experiencing subject of a life.
  58. According to R.G. Frey,

    D) none of the above.
  59. Frey's position regarding the use of animals in research:

    D) implies that the lives of some humans have less value than the lives of some animals.
  60. Singer and Frey would agree that:

    B) moral considerability is associated with the capacity to suffer.
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Philosophy: Ethics