Financial Accounting and Reporting
Bodies designated under GAAP
(ASB)- Accounting Standards Board
4.Federal (FASAB) Advisory Board
Who has the legal authority over establishing reporting requirements for publicly traded companies?
(The SEC has delegated the authority to FASB)
Financial Accounting Foundation
Oversees bodies involved in the establishment of GAAP for
1.Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council (FASAC)
2.Private company Council (PCC)
3.Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)-
other 3 indirectly effect GAAP and advise or propose to FASB who directly effects GAAP
Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council (FASAC)
Advises FASB on standards and evaluates its performance.
Private Company Council (PCC)
proposes exceptions and modifications to GAAP for private companies and advises FASB on private company issues.
Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)
Addresses unusual accounting issues that require prompt action.
(Was created by FASB)
Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
Sarbanes oxley act authorized the SEC to recognize a standard setter for GAAP and (FASB) is the standard setter.
FASB due process before issuing final pronouncements (7 steps)
(includes cost benefit analysis)
1.Financial reporting issues are identified from stakeholders (investors, accountants, etc.)
2.Decision to add issue to agenda
3.Discussion of the issues at public meeting
4.Exposure Draft issued to show stakeholder responses
5.public meeting for exposure draft if needed
6.Rediscussion of the proposals at public meeting
7.FASB votes on final draft
if majority of the 7 board members approves AS updates become AS Codification and apart of GAAP.
Accounting Standards Codification (ASC)
1 of only 2 sources of authoritative financial accounting guidance for nongov entities.
FASB's conceptual framework
Set of objectives, characteristics, elements, and fundamental concepts described in the Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts (SFAC)
Not for Profit characteristics(5)
1.Investors do not expect returns
2.Have operating purposes besides goods & services
3.Have no single performance measure
4.Lacks defined ownership
5.Reports net assets instead of equity
Current year taxes should fund current activities and not shift the tax burden to future citizens
Economic Entity Assumption
The entity and its owners/Managers economic affairs are separated.
Ex. The entity can be sued or the owners themselves can be sued but separately.
Going Concern Assumption (business continuity)
Assumes business operates indefinitely.
Liquidation accounting is not used because it is assumed they will not liquidate.
Monetary Unit Assumption
Assumes accounting records are in terms of money and changes in purchasing power are insignificant.
Assumes economic activity can be divided into distinct time periods. Requires reporting in intervals (quarterly/annual).
Financial accounting assumptions (4)
1. Economic Entity
2. Going Concern
3. Monetary Unit
Financial Accounting Principles (4)
Guidelines for recording Financial Info.
1. Revenue Recognition
3. Historical cost
4. Full disclosure
Revenue Recognition principle
Revenue is reported in the period earned.
Cost required to produce those revenues are matched with those revenues.
Historical Cost Principle
Transactions are recorded initially at cost because it is the most objective measurement of fair value.
Full Disclosure Principle
Any and all information that could influence investor and creditor decisions should be disclosed in the financial statements.
Financial Accounting Constraints (3)
1. cost constraint
2. industry practices constraint
3. conservatism constraint
Cost should be justified by benefits
Industry Practices Constraint
GAAP can be modified in certain industries to avoid reporting misleading and unnecessary info.
Ex. Banks report securities of companies at fair value instead of at cost
When alternative methods are available the one with the least favorable outcome on assets and net income is used.
Relating to quality rather than quantity
Relating to quantity rather than quality
Financial Accounting and Reporting