Financial Accounting and Reporting

  1. Bodies designated under GAAP
    (ASB)- Accounting Standards Board

    • 1.Financial  (FASB)
    • 2.International (IASB)
    • 3.Governmental (GASB)
    • 4.Federal (FASAB) Advisory Board
  2. Who has the legal authority over establishing reporting requirements for publicly traded companies?
    • SEC
    • (The SEC has delegated the authority to FASB)
  3. Financial Accounting Foundation
    Oversees bodies involved in the establishment of GAAP for NON-Governmental entities.

    • 1.Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council (FASAC)
    • 2.Private company Council (PCC)
    • 3.Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)
    • 4.Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)- other 3 indirectly effect GAAP and advise or propose to FASB who directly effects GAAP
  4. Financial Accounting Standards Advisory Council (FASAC)
    Advises FASB on standards and evaluates its performance.
  5. Private Company Council (PCC)
    proposes exceptions and modifications to GAAP for private companies and advises FASB on private company issues.
  6. Emerging Issues Task Force (EITF)
    Addresses unusual accounting issues that require prompt action. 

    (Was created by FASB)
  7. Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
    Sarbanes oxley act authorized the SEC to recognize a standard setter for GAAP and (FASB) is the standard setter.
  8. FASB due process before issuing final pronouncements (7 steps)
    (includes cost benefit analysis)

    • 1.Financial reporting issues are identified from stakeholders (investors, accountants, etc.)
    • 2.Decision to add issue to agenda 
    • 3.Discussion of the issues at public meeting
    • 4.Exposure Draft issued to show stakeholder responses
    • 5.public meeting for exposure draft if needed
    • 6.Rediscussion of the proposals at public meeting
    • 7.FASB votes on final draft if majority of the 7 board members approves AS updates become AS Codification and apart of GAAP.
  9. Accounting Standards Codification (ASC)
    1 of only 2 sources of authoritative financial accounting guidance for nongov entities.
  10. FASB's conceptual framework
    Set of objectives, characteristics, elements, and fundamental concepts described in the Statements of Financial Accounting Concepts (SFAC)
  11. Not for Profit characteristics(5)
    • 1.Investors do not expect returns
    • 2.Have operating purposes besides goods & services
    • 3.Have no single performance measure
    • 4.Lacks defined ownership
    • 5.Reports net assets instead of equity
  12. Interperiod equity
    Current year taxes should fund current activities and not shift the tax burden to future citizens
  13. Economic Entity Assumption
    The entity and its owners/Managers economic affairs are separated.

    Ex. The entity can be sued or the owners themselves can be sued but separately.
  14. Going Concern Assumption (business continuity)
    • Assumes business operates indefinitely.
    • Liquidation accounting is not used because it is assumed they will not liquidate.
  15. Monetary Unit Assumption
    Assumes accounting records are in terms of money and changes in purchasing power are insignificant.
  16. Periodicity Assumption
    Assumes economic activity can be divided into distinct time periods. Requires reporting in intervals (quarterly/annual).
  17. Financial accounting assumptions (4)
    • 1. Economic Entity
    • 2. Going Concern
    • 3. Monetary Unit
    • 4. Periodicity
  18. Financial Accounting Principles (4)
    Guidelines for recording Financial Info.

    • 1. Revenue Recognition
    • 2. Matching
    • 3. Historical cost
    • 4. Full disclosure
  19. Revenue Recognition principle

    Matching Principle
    Revenue is reported in the period earned.

    Cost required to produce those revenues are matched with those revenues.
  20. Historical Cost Principle
    Transactions are recorded initially at cost because it is the most objective measurement of fair value.
  21. Full Disclosure Principle
    Any and all information that could influence investor and creditor decisions should be disclosed in the financial statements.
  22. Financial Accounting Constraints (3)
    • 1. cost constraint
    • 2. industry practices constraint
    • 3. conservatism constraint
  23. Cost Constraint
    Cost should be justified by benefits
  24. Industry Practices Constraint
    GAAP can be modified in certain industries to avoid reporting misleading and unnecessary info.

    Ex. Banks report securities of companies at fair value instead of at cost
  25. Conservatism Constraint
    When alternative methods are available the one with the least favorable outcome on assets and net income is used.
  26. Qualitative

    Relating to quality rather than quantity

    Relating to quantity rather than quality
Card Set
Financial Accounting and Reporting
Chapter 1