Chapter 26/27

  1. What will happen to respiratory rate when the pH drops to 7.3, what happens to the respiratory rate?
    Increase respiratory rate
  2. The part of the protein molecule that acts as a weak base is the ____________  group
  3. How can the body eliminate acids?
    Kidneys secreting H+ and respiration
  4. What happens to pH of ECF when a person hyperventilates?
    pH increases
  5. Know the homeostatic range of pH for ECF
  6. What happens to K+ when aldosterone is secreted?
    Decreases, because it secretes potassium
  7. What is the inorganic ion that is the major buffer of hydrogen ions in plasma?
    Bicarbonate  ion
  8. What is hyperkalemia?
    Increased potassium in the blood
  9. Potassium levels in blood are regulated by which hormone?
  10. What’s the most prevalent extracellular anion?
  11. What is hyponatremia?
    Low sodium in blood
  12. Isotonic saline is what percentage NaCl?
  13. How is ANP secreted? In response to what?
    increased blood volume
  14. As we age, the percentage of body mass that is water is going to decrease or increase?  Why is that?
    Decrease because as we age our muscles are replaced with fat
  15. What is interstitial fluid?
    Fluid between the cells
  16. What is ECF?
    Extracellular fluid
  17. Where is the renal hilum located?  Medially or laterally?  What structures pass through there?
    Medially, renal vein renal artery and ureters
  18. _______________ are the structural and functional units of the kidney
  19. What are fenestrations between the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries?
  20. What would happen to blood flow of the glomerulus if the afferent arteriole were blocked?
    Blood flow diminishes
  21. Urine drains from the nephron into the calyces via the ____________   _____________.
    Papillary duct
  22. What’s the histology of the PCT?
    Simple cuboidal with micro villi
  23. What are the vasa recta?  They are specialized _________________   ________________.
    Peritubular capillaries
  24. Know the arteries of the kidney and where they branch from.  What do interlobular arteries give rise to?
    Abdominal Aorta, renal artery, segmental arteries, interlobular, arcuate, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries
  25. What is GFR?  What are the units of measurement?  What does dilation of afferent arterioles do to GFR?
    Glomerular filtration rate, measured per minute, increase GFR
  26. As blood pressure increases, what happens to the afferent arterioles?  Do they constrict?
    Yes, they constrict, to make the GFR remain the same
  27. The peritubular capillaries are branches of which arteriole?
    Efferent Artiriole
  28. What is tubular secretion?   Substances are passing from ___________ to ___________.
    Blood to urine
  29. Where in the nephron does glucose and amino acids get reabsorbed?
    Proximal convoluted tubule
  30. What happens to urine volume when ADH secretion is low?
    Urine volume increases
  31. Where does most of the tubular secretion occur in the nephron?
    Distal convoluted tubules and collecting duct
  32. If a cancer produces ADH, where does that act in the kidneys to increase water reabsorption?
    Collecting ducts
  33. What’s the consequence of low ADH?  What’s the condition or disease called?
    Diabetes Insipidous
  34. What is the detrusor muscle?  Where is it located and what is its function?
    Located in the urinary bladder and function is to contract to remove urine
  35. How do we get thirsty?  Through what mechanism?
    Increased osmolarity, triggers thirst
  36. What structure produces renin?  In response to what?
    Juxtaglomerular apparatus in response to low blood pressure
  37. Know what gluconeogenesis is
    Formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources
  38. Where are the renal columns located?
    Between the pyramids
  39. Know the order of filtrate flow from glomerular capsule to the collecting duct.
    PCT to Loop of Henle to DCT to collecting duct
  40. Where in the nephron do we have the greatest reabsorption of substances?
  41. What does the glomerulus do?
    Filters blood
  42. What does reabsorption mean?
    From solutes and nutrients filtrate to the blood
  43. What does secretion entail?
    From the blood to filtrate solutes and nutrients
  44. An increase in the permeability of the filtration membrane leads to what protein wasting condition?
  45. Can stress cause glucosuria?
    Yes, because of increased corticol levels
  46. How much does an average person urinate a day?
    5-2 Liters per day
  47. What’s ANP?  When is it secreted?  In response to what?
    Anti-natriuretic peptide, secreted in response to increase BP
  48. Know what ACE does and what its absence or inhibition will lead to.
    Lower BP, by blocking formation of angiotensin 2
  49. Renal calculi can be treated by ECSWL.  What is that?
    extracorporeal shock wave lithotripter
  50. What are two conditions that can lead to renal calculi?
    High Calcium ingestion, and dehydration
  51. What is pyelonephritis?
    Severe kidney infection
  52. The PCT is composed of what histological tissue?
    Simple cuboidal
Card Set
Chapter 26/27