Nutrition Flashcards Chapter 15

  1. Definition:the capacity of a woman to produce a normal ovum periodically and of a man to produce normal sperm; the ability to reproduce.
  2. Definition:the union of the male sperm and the female ovum; fertilization.
  3. Definition:the organ that develops inside the uterus early in pregnancy, through which the fetus receives nutrients and oxygen and returns carbon dioxide and other waste products to be excreted.
  4. Definition:the muscular organ within which the infant develops before birth.
  5. Definition:the “bag of waters” in the uterus, in which the fetus floats.
    amniotic sac
  6. Definition:the ropelike structure through which the fetus’s veins and arteries reach the placenta; the route of nourishment and oxygen to the fetus and the route of waste disposal from the fetus. The scar in the middle of the abdomen that marks the former attachment of the umbilical cord is the umbilicus (um-BILL-ih-cus), commonly known as the “belly button.”
    umbilical cord
  7. Definition:the female reproductive cell, capable of developing into a new organism upon fertilization; commonly referred to as an egg.
  8. Definition:the male reproductive cell, capable of fertilizing an ovum.
  9. Definition:the initial product of the union of ovum and sperm; a fertilized ovum.
  10. Definition:the developmental stage of the zygote when it is about 5 days old and ready for implantation.
  11. Definition:the embedding of the blastocyst in the inner lining of the uterus.
  12. Definition:the developing infant from 2 to 8 weeks after conception.
  13. Definition:the developing infant from 8 weeks after conception until term.
  14. Definition:births occurring at 39 through 40 weeks of gestation.
    full term
  15. Definition:finite periods during development in which certain events occur that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages; usually a period of rapid cell division.
    critical periods
  16. Definition:the period from conception to birth. For human beings, the average length of a healthy gestation is 40 weeks. Pregnancy is often divided into 3-month periods, called trimesters.
  17. Definition:malformations of the brain, spinal cord, or both during embryonic development that often results in lifelong disability or death.
    neural tube defect
  18. Definition:an uncommon and always fatal type of neural tube defect, characterized by the absence of a brain. • an = not (without) • encephalus = brain
  19. Definition:one of the most common types of neural tube defects, characterized by the incomplete closure of the spinal cord and its bony encasement. • spina = spine • bifida = split
    Spina bifida
  20. Definition:the influence of substances during fetal growth on the development of diseases in later life.
    fetal programming
  21. Definition:births occurring before 37 weeks of gestation; births occurring at 37 to 38 weeks of gestation are designated early term.
  22. Definition:abnormally large body size. In the case of infants, a birthweight at the 90th percentile or higher for gestational age (roughly 9 lb—or 4000 g—or more); macrosomia results from prepregnancy obesity, excessive weight gain during pregnancy, or uncontrolled gestational diabetes. • macro = large • soma = body
  23. Definition:a surgically assisted birth involving removal of the fetus by an incision into the uterus, usually by way of the abdominal wall.
    cesarean delivery
  24. Definition:strong desires to eat particular foods.
    Food cravings
  25. Definition:strong desires to avoid particular foods.
    food aversions
  26. Definition:a craving for and consumption of nonfood substances. Pica is known as geophagia (gee-oh-FAY-gee-uh) when referring to eating clay, baby powder, chalk, ash, ceramics, paper, paint chips, or charcoal; pagophagia (pag-oh- FAY-gee-uh) when referring to eating large quantities of ice; and amylophagia (AM-ee-low-FAY-gee-ah) when referring to eating uncooked starch (flour, laundry starch, or raw rice).
  27. Definition:a pregnancy characterized by risk factors that make it likely the birth will be surrounded by problems such as premature delivery, difficult birth, restricted growth, birth defects, and early infant death.
    high-risk pregnancy
  28. Definition:a pregnancy characterized by factors that make it likely the birth will be normal and the infant healthy.
    low-risk pregnancy
  29. Definition:a birthweight of 5⁢12 pounds (2500 grams) or less; indicates probable poor health in the newborn and poor nutrition status in the mother during pregnancy, before pregnancy, or both. Optimal birthweight for a full-term baby is about 6⁢12 to 8 pounds.
    low birthweight (LBW)
  30. Definition:glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
    gestational diabetes
  31. Definition:high blood pressure that develops in the second half of pregnancy and resolves after childbirth, usually without affecting the outcome of the pregnancy.
    gestational hypertension
  32. Definition:a condition characterized by high blood pressure and some protein in the urine.
  33. Definition:a condition characterized by extremely high blood pressure, elevated protein in the urine, seizures, and possibly coma
  34. Definition:a genetic abnormality that causes mental retardation, short stature, and flattened facial features.
    Down syndrome
  35. Definition:causing abnormal fetal development and birth defects.
  36. Definition:referring to the time between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and 1 month after birth.
  37. Definition:the unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well infant; the most common cause of death of infants between the second week and the end of the first year of life; also called crib death.
    sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
  38. Definition:an infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, which can be killed by pasteurization and cooking but can survive at refrigerated temperatures; certain ready-to-eat foods, such as hot dogs and deli meats, may become contaminated after cooking or processing, but before packaging.
  39. Definition:production and secretion of breast milk for the purpose of nourishing an infant.
  40. Definition:glands of the female breast that secrete milk.
    mammary glands
  41. Definition:a hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary gland that acts on the mammary glands to promote the production of milk. The release of prolactin is mediated by prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH). • pro = promote • lacto = milk
  42. Definition:a hormone that stimulates the mammary glands to eject milk during lactation and the uterus to contract during childbirth.
  43. Definition:the reflex that forces milk to the front of the breast when the infant begins to nurse.
    let-down reflex
  44. Definition:health-care providers who specialize in helping new mothers establish a healthy breastfeeding relationship with their newborn. These consultants are often registered nurses with specialized training in breast and infant anatomy and physiology.
    certified lactation consultants
  45. Definition:the normal temporary absence of menstrual periods immediately following childbirth.
    postpartum amenorrhea
  46. Definition:malformations in the skeletal and organ systems (heart, kidneys, eyes, ears) associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.
    alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD)
  47. Definition:abnormalities in the central nervous system and cognitive development associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.
    alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)
  48. Definition:a range of physical, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities caused by prenatal alcohol exposure.
    fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
  49. Definition:a cluster of physical, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, including facial malformations, growth retardation, and central nervous disorders.
    fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  50. Definition:subjecting a fetus to a pattern of excessive alcohol intake characterized by substantial regular use or heavy episodic drinking.
    prenatal alcohol exposure
Card Set
Nutrition Flashcards Chapter 15