Nutrition Flashcards Chapter 14

  1. Definition:the characteristics that enable the body to perform physical activity; more broadly, the ability to meet routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to rise to a physical challenge; or the body’s ability to withstand stress of all kinds.
  2. Definition:physically inactive (literally, “sitting down a lot”).
  3. Definition:bodily movement produced by muscle contractions that substantially increase energy expenditure.
    physical activity
  4. Definition:planned, structured, and repetitive body movements that promote or maintain physical fitness.
  5. Definition:activity in which the body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time. Aerobic activity, also called endurance activity, improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Brisk walking, running, swimming, and bicycling are examples.
    aerobic physical activity
  6. Definition:physical activity that requires some increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends 3.5 to 7 kcalories per minute. Walking at a speed of 3 to 4.5 miles per hour (about 15 to 20 minutes to walk 1 mile) is an example.
    moderate-intensity physical activity
  7. Definition:physical activity that requires a large increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends more than 7 kcalories per minute. Walking at a very brisk pace (>4.5 miles per hour) or running at a pace of at least 5 miles per hour are examples.
    vigorous-intensity physical activity
  8. Definition:an extra physical demand placed on the body; an increase in the frequency, duration, or intensity of an activity. A principle of training that states for a body system to improve, it must be worked at frequencies, durations, or intensities that increase by increments.
  9. Definition:growing larger; with regard to muscles, an increase in size (and strength) in response to use.
  10. Definition:becoming smaller; with regard to muscles, a decrease in size (and strength) because of disuse, undernutrition, or wasting diseases.
  11. Definition:5 to 10 minutes of light activity, such as easy jogging or cycling, prior to a workout to prepare the body for more vigorous activity.
  12. Definition:5 to 10 minutes of light activity, such as walking or stretching, following a vigorous workout to gradually return the body’s core to near-normal temperature.
  13. Definition:the capacity of the joints to move through a full range of motion; the ability to bend and recover without injury.
  14. Definition:the ability to perform large-muscle, dynamic exercise of moderate to high intensity for prolonged periods.
    Cardiorespiratory endurance
  15. Definition:the ability of muscles to work against resistance.
    Muscle strength
  16. Definition:the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming exhausted.
    muscle endurance
  17. Definition:the proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissues that make up a person’s total body weight.
    Body composition
  18. Definition:the maximum rate of oxygen consumption by an individual at sea level.
  19. Definition:improvements in heart and lung function and increased blood volume, brought about by aerobic training.
    Cardiorespiratory conditioning
  20. Definition:the volume of blood discharged by the heart each minute; determined by multiplying the stroke volume by the heart rate. The stroke volume is the amount of oxygenated blood the heart ejects toward the tissues at each beat. Cardiac output (volume/minute) = stroke volume (volume/beat) × heart rate (beats/minute)
    Cardiac output
  21. Definition:the use of free weights or weight machines to provide resistance for developing muscle strength, power, and endurance; also called weight training. A person’s own body weight may also be used to provide resistance such as when a person does push-ups, pull-ups, or abdominal crunches.
    Resistance training
  22. Definition:the product of force generation (strength) and movement velocity (speed); the speed at which a given amount of exertion is completed.
    muscle power
  23. Definition:a high-energy compound in muscle cells that acts as a reservoir of energy that can maintain a steady supply of ATP. CP provides the energy for short bursts of activity; also called phosphocreatine. • During rest: ATP+creatine→CP • During activity: CP→ATP+creatine
    creatine phosphate (CP)
  24. Definition:a regimen of moderate exercise followed by the consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet that enables muscles to store glycogen beyond their normal capacities; also called glycogen loading or glycogen super compensation.
    carbohydrate loading
  25. Definition:a transient condition of low hemoglobin in the blood, associated with the early stages of sports training or other strenuous activity.
    sports anemia
  26. Definition:an above-normal body temperature.
  27. Definition:a dangerous accumulation of body heat with accompanying loss of body fluid.
    heat stroke
  28. Definition:a below-normal body temperature.
  29. Definition:the amount of weight lost plus fluid consumed during exercise per hour. One pound equals roughly 2 cups (500 milliliters) of fluid.
    hourly sweat rate
  30. Definition:a decreased concentration of sodium in the blood. • hypo= below • natrium = sodium (Na) • emia = blood
  31. Definition:compounds that supply glucose, not as single molecules, but linked in chains somewhat like starch. The objective is to attract less water from the body into the digestive tract (osmotic attraction depends on the number, not the size, of particles).
    glucose polymers
  32. Definition:water that is fortified with ingredients such as vitamins, minerals, protein, oxygen, or herbs. Enhanced water is marketed as vitamin water, sports water, oxygenated water, and protein water.
    enhanced water
  33. Definition:drugs related to the male sex hormone, testosterone, that stimulate the development of lean body mass. • anabolic= promoting growth • sterols = compounds chemically related to cholesterol
    anabolic steroids
  34. Definition:See DHEA.
  35. Definition:a nonessential amino acid that is the rate-limiting precursor for the synthesis of the dipeptide carnosine. Carnosine acts primarily as a buffer in skeletal muscle. Beta-alanine supplements raise carnosine concentrations, which enhance the muscles’ buffering capacity.
  36. Definition:a metabolite of the amino acid leucine promoted to increase muscle mass and strength.
    beta-hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB)
  37. Definition:a natural stimulant found in many common foods and beverages, including coffee, tea, and chocolate; may enhance endurance by stimulating fatty acid release. High doses cause headaches, trembling, rapid heart rate, and other undesirable side effects.
  38. Definition:a nonessential nonprotein amino acid made in the body from lysine that helps transport fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane. As a supplement, carnitine supposedly “burns” fat and spares glycogen during endurance events, but in reality it does neither.
  39. Definition:a trace mineral supplement; falsely promoted as building muscle, enhancing energy, and burning fat. Picolinate is a derivative of the amino acid tryptophan that seems to enhance chromium absorption.
    chromium picolinate
  40. Definition:liquid meal replacers, energy drinks, energy bars, and energy gels that athletes and active people use to replenish energy and nutrients when time is limited.
    convenient dietary supplements
  41. Definition:a nitrogen-containing compound that combines with phosphate to form the high-energy compound creatine phosphate (or phosphocreatine) in muscles.
  42. Definition:hormones made in the adrenal glands that serve as precursors to the male sex hormone, testosterone; falsely promoted as burning fat, building muscle, and slowing aging.
    DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) and androstenedione
  43. Definition:substances or techniques used in an attempt to enhance physical performance. • ergo = work • genic = gives rise to
    ergogenic aids
  44. Definition:a hormone produced by the brain’s pituitary gland that regulates normal growth and development; also called somatotropin.
    hGH (human growth hormone)
  45. Definition:a naturally occurring 5-carbon sugar needed for the synthesis of ATP.
  46. Definition:a white crystalline powder that is used to buffer acid that accumulates in the muscles and blood during high-intensity exercise.
    sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)
Card Set
Nutrition Flashcards Chapter 14