Nutrition flaschards chapter 13

  1. Definition:the withdrawal of blood from the body.
  2. Definition:the iron storage protein.
  3. toxicity from excess iron
    Iron Overload
  4. Definition:the iron transport protein.
  5. Definition:essential mineral nutrients the human body requires in relatively small amounts (less than 100 milligrams per day); sometimes called microminerals.
    Trace minerals
  6. Definition:the rate at and the extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used.
  7. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is needed for the transport of oxygen and the metabolism of energy nutrients.
  8. Definition:a small, inorganic or organic substance that facilitates the action of an enzyme.
  9. Definition:the globular protein of the red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body; hemoglobin accounts for 80 percent of the body’s iron.
  10. Definition:the oxygen-holding protein of the muscle cells. • myo = muscle
  11. Definition:the iron in foods that is bound to the hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins; found only in meat, fish, and poultry.
    heme iron
  12. Definition:the iron in foods that is not bound to proteins; found in both plant-derived and animal-derived foods.
    nonheme iron
  13. Definition:a peptide released during the digestion of meat, fish, and poultry that enhances nonheme iron absorption.
    MFP factor
  14. Definition:an iron-storage protein primarily made in times of iron overload.
  15. Definition:a hormone produced by the liver that regulates iron balance
  16. Definition:the state of having depleted iron stores.
    Iron deficiency
  17. Definition:severe depletion of iron stores that results in low hemoglobin and small, pale red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia is a microcytic (my-cro-SIT-ic) hypochromic (high-po-KROME-ic) anemia. • micro = small • cytic = cell • hypo = too little • chrom = color
    iron-deficiency anemia
  18. Definition:a precursor to hemoglobin.
    erythrocyte protoporphyrin
  19. Definition:the percentage of total blood volume that consists of red blood cells.
  20. Definition:a craving for and consumption of nonfood substances. Pica is known as geophagia (gee-oh-FAY-gee-uh) when referring to eating clay, baby powder, chalk, ash, ceramics, paper, paint chips, or charcoal; pagophagia (pag-oh-FAY-gee-uh) when referring to eating large quantities of ice; and amylophagia (AM-ee-low-FAY-gee-ah) when referring to eating uncooked starch (flour, laundry starch, or raw rice).
  21. Definition:a genetically determined failure to prevent absorption of unneeded dietary iron that is characterized by iron overload and tissue damage
  22. chelate
    Definition:a substance that can grasp the positive ions of a mineral. • chele = claw
  23. Definition:iron found in foods as the result of contamination by inorganic iron salts from iron cookware, iron-containing soils, and the like.
    contamination iron
  24. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is part of many enzymes and a constituent of insulin.
  25. Definition:enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their structures.
  26. Definition:proteins that bind to specific sites in DNA and alter gene expression.
    transcription factors
  27. Definition:a sulfurrich protein that avidly binds with and transports metals such as zinc.• metallo=containing a metal • thio=containing sulfur • ein=a protein
  28. Definition:the circulatory route from the pancreas to the small intestine and back to the pancreas.
    enteropancreatic circulation
  29. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
  30. Definition:an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to an iodine deficiency, malfunction of the gland, or overconsumption of a goitrogen. Goiter caused by iodine deficiency is sometimes called simple goiter.
  31. Definition:a substance that enlarges the thyroid gland and causes toxic goiter. Goitrogens occur naturally in such foods as cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, and kohlrabi.
  32. Definition:a congenital disease characterized by mental and physical retardation and commonly caused by maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy.
  33. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is part of an antioxidant enzyme.
  34. Definition:the heart disease associated with selenium deficiency; named for one of the provinces of China where it was first studied. Keshan disease is characterized by heart enlargement and insufficiency; fibrous tissue replaces the muscle tissue that normally composes the middle layer of the walls of the heart.
    Keshan disease
  35. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is part of many enzymes.
  36. Definition:a genetic disorder of copper transport that creates a copper deficiency and results in mental retardation, poor muscle tone, seizures, brittle kinky hair, and failure to thrive.
    Menkes disease
  37. Definition:a genetic disorder of copper metabolism that creates a copper toxicity and results in neurologic symptoms such as tremors, impaired speech, inappropriate behaviors, and personality changes.
    Wilson’s disease
  38. Definition:an essential trace mineral that acts as a cofactor for many enzymes.
  39. Definition:an essential trace mineral that makes teeth stronger and more resistant to decay.
  40. Definition:the stabilized form of tooth crystal, in which fluoride has replaced the hydroxyl groups of hydroxyapatite
  41. Definition:discoloration and pitting of tooth enamel caused by excess fluoride during tooth development.
  42. Definition:an essential trace mineral that enhances the activity of insulin.
  43. Definition:mineral ions such as mercury and lead, so called because they are of relatively high atomic weight. Many heavy metals are poisonous.
  44. Definition:mineral ions such as mercury and lead, so called because they are of relatively high atomic weight. Many heavy metals are poisonous.
    heavy metals
  45. Definition:pigments commonly found in plants and animals, some of which have vitamin A activity. The carotenoid with the greatest vitamin A activity is beta-carotene.
  46. Definition:yellow pigments in foods; phytochemicals that may exert physiological effects on the body.
  47. Definition:the small brown seeds of the flax plant; valued in nutrition as a source of fiber, lignans, and omega-3 fatty acids.
  48. Definition:the small brown seeds of the flax plant; valued in nutrition as a source of fiber, lignans, and omega-3 fatty acids.
    functional foods
  49. Definition:phytochemicals present in flaxseed that are converted to phytosterols by intestinal bacteria and are under study as possible anticancer agents.
  50. Definition:a plant pigment of yellow hue; a phytochemical believed to play roles in eye functioning and health.
  51. Definition:a pigment responsible for the red color of tomatoes and other red-hued vegetables; a phytochemical that may act as an antioxidant in the body.
  52. Definition:nonnutrient compounds found in plants. Some phytochemicals have biological activity in the body. •phyto = plant
  53. Definition:phytochemicals structurally similar to human estrogen that weakly mimic or modulate estrogen’s action in the body. Phytoestrogens include the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and glycitein.
  54. Definition:phytochemicals that have structural similarities to cholesterol and lower blood cholesterol by interfering with cholesterol absorption. Plant sterols include sterol estersand stanol esters.
    plant sterols
Card Set
Nutrition flaschards chapter 13