Nutrition flaschards chapter 13

  1. Definition:the withdrawal of blood from the body.
    phlebotomy
  2. Definition:the iron storage protein.
    ferritin
  3. toxicity from excess iron
    Iron Overload
  4. Definition:the iron transport protein.
    transferrin
  5. Definition:essential mineral nutrients the human body requires in relatively small amounts (less than 100 milligrams per day); sometimes called microminerals.
    Trace minerals
  6. Definition:the rate at and the extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used.
    bioavailability
  7. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is needed for the transport of oxygen and the metabolism of energy nutrients.
    Iron
  8. Definition:a small, inorganic or organic substance that facilitates the action of an enzyme.
    cofactor
  9. Definition:the globular protein of the red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body; hemoglobin accounts for 80 percent of the body’s iron.
    hemoglobin
  10. Definition:the oxygen-holding protein of the muscle cells. • myo = muscle
    myoglobin
  11. Definition:the iron in foods that is bound to the hemoglobin and myoglobin proteins; found only in meat, fish, and poultry.
    heme iron
  12. Definition:the iron in foods that is not bound to proteins; found in both plant-derived and animal-derived foods.
    nonheme iron
  13. Definition:a peptide released during the digestion of meat, fish, and poultry that enhances nonheme iron absorption.
    MFP factor
  14. Definition:an iron-storage protein primarily made in times of iron overload.
    hemosiderin
  15. Definition:a hormone produced by the liver that regulates iron balance
    hepcidin
  16. Definition:the state of having depleted iron stores.
    Iron deficiency
  17. Definition:severe depletion of iron stores that results in low hemoglobin and small, pale red blood cells. Iron-deficiency anemia is a microcytic (my-cro-SIT-ic) hypochromic (high-po-KROME-ic) anemia. • micro = small • cytic = cell • hypo = too little • chrom = color
    iron-deficiency anemia
  18. Definition:a precursor to hemoglobin.
    erythrocyte protoporphyrin
  19. Definition:the percentage of total blood volume that consists of red blood cells.
    hematocrit
  20. Definition:a craving for and consumption of nonfood substances. Pica is known as geophagia (gee-oh-FAY-gee-uh) when referring to eating clay, baby powder, chalk, ash, ceramics, paper, paint chips, or charcoal; pagophagia (pag-oh-FAY-gee-uh) when referring to eating large quantities of ice; and amylophagia (AM-ee-low-FAY-gee-ah) when referring to eating uncooked starch (flour, laundry starch, or raw rice).
    pica
  21. Definition:a genetically determined failure to prevent absorption of unneeded dietary iron that is characterized by iron overload and tissue damage
    hemochromatosis
  22. chelate
    Definition:a substance that can grasp the positive ions of a mineral. • chele = claw
  23. Definition:iron found in foods as the result of contamination by inorganic iron salts from iron cookware, iron-containing soils, and the like.
    contamination iron
  24. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is part of many enzymes and a constituent of insulin.
    Zinc
  25. Definition:enzymes that contain one or more minerals as part of their structures.
    metalloenzymes
  26. Definition:proteins that bind to specific sites in DNA and alter gene expression.
    transcription factors
  27. Definition:a sulfurrich protein that avidly binds with and transports metals such as zinc.• metallo=containing a metal • thio=containing sulfur • ein=a protein
    metallothionein
  28. Definition:the circulatory route from the pancreas to the small intestine and back to the pancreas.
    enteropancreatic circulation
  29. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is needed for the synthesis of thyroid hormones.
    iodine
  30. Definition:an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to an iodine deficiency, malfunction of the gland, or overconsumption of a goitrogen. Goiter caused by iodine deficiency is sometimes called simple goiter.
    goiter
  31. Definition:a substance that enlarges the thyroid gland and causes toxic goiter. Goitrogens occur naturally in such foods as cabbage, kale, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, broccoli, and kohlrabi.
    Term:goitrogen
  32. Definition:a congenital disease characterized by mental and physical retardation and commonly caused by maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy.
    cretinism
  33. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is part of an antioxidant enzyme.
    selenium
  34. Definition:the heart disease associated with selenium deficiency; named for one of the provinces of China where it was first studied. Keshan disease is characterized by heart enlargement and insufficiency; fibrous tissue replaces the muscle tissue that normally composes the middle layer of the walls of the heart.
    Keshan disease
  35. Definition:an essential trace mineral that is part of many enzymes.
    copper
  36. Definition:a genetic disorder of copper transport that creates a copper deficiency and results in mental retardation, poor muscle tone, seizures, brittle kinky hair, and failure to thrive.
    Menkes disease
  37. Definition:a genetic disorder of copper metabolism that creates a copper toxicity and results in neurologic symptoms such as tremors, impaired speech, inappropriate behaviors, and personality changes.
    Wilson’s disease
  38. Definition:an essential trace mineral that acts as a cofactor for many enzymes.
    manganese
  39. Definition:an essential trace mineral that makes teeth stronger and more resistant to decay.
    Fluoride
  40. Definition:the stabilized form of tooth crystal, in which fluoride has replaced the hydroxyl groups of hydroxyapatite
    fluorapatite
  41. Definition:discoloration and pitting of tooth enamel caused by excess fluoride during tooth development.
    fluorosis
  42. Definition:an essential trace mineral that enhances the activity of insulin.
    Chromium
  43. Definition:mineral ions such as mercury and lead, so called because they are of relatively high atomic weight. Many heavy metals are poisonous.
    Molybdenum
  44. Definition:mineral ions such as mercury and lead, so called because they are of relatively high atomic weight. Many heavy metals are poisonous.
    heavy metals
  45. Definition:pigments commonly found in plants and animals, some of which have vitamin A activity. The carotenoid with the greatest vitamin A activity is beta-carotene.
    carotenoids
  46. Definition:yellow pigments in foods; phytochemicals that may exert physiological effects on the body.
    flavonoids
  47. Definition:the small brown seeds of the flax plant; valued in nutrition as a source of fiber, lignans, and omega-3 fatty acids.
    flaxseeds
  48. Definition:the small brown seeds of the flax plant; valued in nutrition as a source of fiber, lignans, and omega-3 fatty acids.
    functional foods
  49. Definition:phytochemicals present in flaxseed that are converted to phytosterols by intestinal bacteria and are under study as possible anticancer agents.
    lignans
  50. Definition:a plant pigment of yellow hue; a phytochemical believed to play roles in eye functioning and health.
    lutein
  51. Definition:a pigment responsible for the red color of tomatoes and other red-hued vegetables; a phytochemical that may act as an antioxidant in the body.
    lycopene
  52. Definition:nonnutrient compounds found in plants. Some phytochemicals have biological activity in the body. •phyto = plant
    phytochemicals
  53. Definition:phytochemicals structurally similar to human estrogen that weakly mimic or modulate estrogen’s action in the body. Phytoestrogens include the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and glycitein.
    phytoestrogens
  54. Definition:phytochemicals that have structural similarities to cholesterol and lower blood cholesterol by interfering with cholesterol absorption. Plant sterols include sterol estersand stanol esters.
    plant sterols
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Nutrition flaschards chapter 13
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