1. Surg Tech role in Cardiac arrest
    The primary role is to remain sterile and preserve the sterile field. Pack the surgical wound with moist sponges and cover with a sterile drape or sterile towels. Keep track of all instruments, sponges, and needles on the sterile field and anticipate the needs of the surgeon. Assist in CPR.
  2. Ophthalmic Anesthesia
    In eye surgery anesthetic agents might be, Instilled, Injected, Solutions, Ointments. Pediatric patients are always given a general anesthetic. A retrobulbar block is typically used for eye surgery in adults. The surgeon administers the block with a 10-ml syringe fitted with a long 25-gauge needle. The patient may have been given a light sedation before the block is administered.
  3. used before eye examinations to dilate (open) the pupil. It is also used to relieve pain caused by swelling and inflammation of the eye
  4. Inflating and maintaining anterior chamber depth, particularly during rhexis. Flattening the anterior surface of the lens, particularly when the lens is intumescent, to reduce expulsion, that may lead to extension or escape of the rhexis. Covering the corneal endothelium and protecting it from the turbulence created by the irrigation fluids or floating lens fragments. Pushing the iris back from the entrance of the ultrasound probe; stabilizing the iris so that its movements are minimized during the turbulence. Buffering the friction caused when surgical instruments are introduced through small incisions. Temporarily tamponading a posterior capsular rupture until phacoemulsification has been completed or until the surgeon converts to a manual extracapsular technique.  Creating space inside the anterior chamber and inside the capsular bag for IOL implantation
  5. Intraocular ophthalmic irrigation is used to maintain the natural condition of the eye during a surgical procedure such as cataract surgery.
    BSS – (Balanced Salt Solutions)
  6. drops are used to numb the eye before surgery, local anesthetic.
  7. Complete removal of the eyeball, done under general anesthetic.
  8. the surgical removal of part of the iris. These procedures are most frequently performed in the treatment of closed-angle glaucoma and iris melanoma.
  9. The cornea is the clear, convex portion of the eye, similar to a window. 

    Injury, infection, or degenerative diseases can cause the cornea to become cloudy. A corneal transplant is performed when the patient’s other visual structures are intact, but the cornea has become opaque and thickened, causing loss of vision. The cornea is an excellent recipient of donor tissue, and this procedure has extremely high success rates. The reason that the transplant tissue does well is that the tissue is devoid of blood vessels, and this reduces the risk of rejection.
  10. a chronic inflammatory granuloma of the sebaceous gland. The lid becomes swollen and painful, and a cyst forms. The conservative treatment for this is to apply compresses or steroid injections.  When the cyst is large, surgery is indicated.
  11. is a medical condition in which the eyelid (usually the lower lid) folds inward. It is very uncomfortable, as the eyelashes continuously rub against the cornea causing irritation.
  12. a "turning out" of the eyelid. Typically occurring on the lower eyelid, the skin of the inner lid is exposed, either in one section of eye or across the entire lid. This prevents tears from draining from the eye correctly, resulting in irritation.
  13. a surgery to remove the vitreous gel from the middle of the eye . It may be done when there is a retinal detachment or if blood in the vitreous gel (vitreous hemorrhage) does not clear on its own. Removing the vitreous gel gives your eye doctor better access to the back of the eye.
  14. Performed to correct deviation of the eye caused by strabismus,  a condition in which the eye or eyes cannot focus on an object because the muscles lack coordination.

    The affected muscles are removed and reattached to the proper location correcting the patient’s vision.

    There are two surgical procedures typically used to treat strabismus. In lateral rectus resection, a portion of the muscle is excised, and the severed end is reattached at the original site of insertion. This shortens the drift of the eye. In medial rectus recession, the muscle is detached from its insertion (as shown in Figure 24–16C), moved posteriorly, and reattached. This releases the eye and allows it to move further back laterally. The instrumentation for this type of procedure should include calipers, marking pen, two straight mosquito hemostats, two curved mosquito hemostats, assorted muscle clamps, and large pack of cotton-topped applicators (long Q-tips) used for surgical sponges. Both of these procedures are typically done on pediatric patients, before they start school. Remember that there is an anesthesia complication involved in “tugging” on the eyeball. This may create a vaso-vagal response in the patient and the surgeon will normally alert the anesthesia provider before putting in a traction suture or pulling on the eye muscles.   Vaso-vagal response—a stimulation of the vagus nerve by reflex in which irritation of the larynx or the trachea results in slowing of the pulse rate.
    Strabismus correction
  15. a benign, painless bump or nodule inside the upper or lower eyelid.
  16. is a condition in which your eyelid turns outward. This leaves the inner eyelid surface exposed and prone to irritation.
  17. is a condition in which your eyelid turns outward. This leaves the inner eyelid surface exposed and prone to irritation.
  18. is a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil.
  19. a form of strabismus in which one or both eyes turns inward. The condition can be constantly present, or occur intermittently, and can give the affected individual a "cross-eyed" appearance.
  20. nearsightedness, can’t see far.
  21. caused by a hardening of the lens of your eye, which occurs with aging. As your lens becomes less flexible, it can no longer change shape to focus on close-up images. As a result, these images appear out of focus.
  22. the vision in one of the eyes is reduced because the eye and the brain are not working together properly.
  23. Trephine
    Image Upload 1cylindrical sharp instrument used to size up and excise the cornea.
  24. Ocutome
    Image Upload 2Cuts the vitreous and aspires it during a vitrectomy.
  25. Phacoemulsification hand piece
    Image Upload 3

    an ultrasonic handpiece the breaks down and aspirates cataracts.
  26. Wescott scissors
    Image Upload 4spring-action miscroscissors: useful in strabismus and conjuctica operations
  27. McPherson-Vannas iris scissors.
    Image Upload 5
  28. is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina. Eye color is defined by it.
  29. a transparent structure behind the iris, the coloured part of the eye. It bends light rays so that they form a clear image at the back of the eye – on the retina. It is elastic, it can change shape, getting fatter to focus close objects and thinner for distant objects.
  30. the small area at the centre of the retina responsible for what we see straight in front of us, at the centre of our field of vision.
  31. the clear fluid filling the space in the front of the eyeball between the lens and the cornea.
    Aqueous humor
  32. the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball
    Vitreous humor
  33. tear duct
    Lacrimal duct
  34. is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
  35. a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. It is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it.
  36. helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing. This part of the brain is a center for respiration and circulation. Sensory and motor neurons (nerve cells) from the forebrain and midbrain travel through this.
    Medulla oblogata
  37. Branches of the respiratory tree
    The Bronchial tree consists of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Bronchi are formed as the lower part of the trachea divides into two tubes. The primary portion enters the lungs at a region called the hilus. The primary branch forms a secondary branch, which then branches into smaller tertiary bronchi. The left bronchus is narrow and positioned more horizontally than the right bronchus. The right bronchus is shorter and wider than the left and extends downward in a more vertical direction. Because of the difference in size between the two, objects are more easily inhaled (aspirated) into this portion of the bronchi. Bronchioles are smaller tube divisions of the bronchi. Its walls contain smooth muscle and no cartilage. This allows contraction and relaxation, thereby regulating air flow to the alveoli. Alveoli are tiny ends of the alveolar ducts. These tiny air sacs function to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Certain respiratory diseases cause a thickening of the alveoli walls, which restricts movement, causing breathing difficulties.
  38. Flow of blood through heart, lungs, and primary vessels
    Blood low in oxygen travels from the right ventricle of the heart through the left branch of the pulmonary artery to the left lung to be oxygenated. same for the right lung, except it travels through the right branch of the pulmonary artery. oxygenated blood leaves the lungs through the pulmonary vein and enters the left atrium of the heart.
  39. Lobes of lungs
    Left lung has superior and inferior lobes. right lung has superior, middle, inferior; each lobe is separated by fissure.
  40. a small mass of muscular fibers at the base of the wall between the atria, conducting impulses received from the sinoatrial node by way of the atrioventricular bundles and, under certain conditions, functioning for the sinoatrial node as pacemaker of the heart.
    AV node – (Atrioventricular node)
  41. a small body of specialized muscle tissue in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that acts as a pacemaker by producing a contractile signal at regular intervals.
    SA node -  (sinoatrial node)
  42. primary artery of the heart.
  43. main artery of the head and neck.
  44. main artery that supplies the arms.
    Subclavian artery
  45. a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb.
    Axillary artery
  46. is the major blood vessel of the (upper) arm.
    Brachial artery
  47. main artery of the lateral aspect of the forearm and hands.
    Radial artery
  48. main artery of the medial aspect of the forearm and hands.
    Ulnar artery
  49. is the dominant artery in the pelvic area.
    Hypogastric artery
  50. is the second largest artery in the body (second to the aorta) and is in the thigh and the main arterial supply to the lower limb.
    Femoral artery
  51. It is located in the knee and the back of the leg. Its courses near the adductor canal and the adductor hiatus, distinctive open areas inside the thigh. At its far end, it splits into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
    Popliteal artery
  52. arteries of the lower leg and feet.
    Tibial arteries (anterioir/posterior)
  53. Number: 1
    Type: Sensory
    Function: Sense of Smell
  54. Number: 2
    Type: Sensory
    Function: Vision
  55. Number: 3
    Type: Motor
    Function: Raise eyelids, move eyes, regulate the size of pupils, focus of lenses.
  56. Number: 4
    Type: Motor
    Function: Eye movements, proprioception
  57. Number: 5
    Type: Mixed
    Function: Sensations of the head and face, chewing movements, and muscle sense.
  58. Number: 6
    Type: Motor
    Function: Produce movements of the eyes
  59. Number: 7
    Type: Mixed
    Function: Facial expressions, secretion of saliva, taste.
  60. Number: 8
    Type: Sensory
    Function: Balance or equilibrium sense. Hearing.
  61. Number: 9
    Type: Mixed
    Function: Taste and other sensations of tongue, swallowing, secretion of saliva, aid in reflex control of blood pressure and respiration.
  62. Number: 10
    Type: Mixed
    Function: Transmit impulses to muscles associated with speech, swallowing, the heart, smooth muscles of visceral organs in the thorax, and abdomen.
  63. Number:11
    Type: Motor
    Function: Turning movements of the head, movements of the shoulder and viscera, voice production.
  64. Number:12
    Type: Motor
    Function: Tongue movements
  65. are blister-like air pockets that form on the surface of the lung.
  66. where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. It is thin-walled and is rich in capillaries. It is formed by a group or cluster of alveoli, and it is where the alveoli communicate.
    Alveolar sac
  67. The smallest airways within the lungs that are not encircled by any cartilage are called what. Once the trachea divides into the left and right primary bronchi, they then branch into smaller and smaller divisions to lead to these.
  68. the collapse or closure of a lung resulting in reduced or absent gas exchange. It may affect part or all of a lung. It is usually unilateral. It is a condition where the alveoli are deflated down to little or no volume.
  69. a medical procedure involving the surgical removal of the surface layer, membrane, or fibrous cover of an organ. The procedure is usually performed when the lung is covered by a thick, inelastic pleural peel restricting lung expansion.
  70. a lung condition that causes shortness of breath. In people with emphysema, the air sacs in the lungs (alveoli) are damaged. Over time, the inner walls of the air sacs weaken and rupture — creating larger air spaces instead of many small ones.
  71. a collection of pus in the pleural cavity caused by microorganisms, usually bacteria. Often it happens in the context of a pneumonia, injury, or chest surgery. It is one of various kinds of pleural effusion.
  72. an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi.
  73. inflammation of the pleurae, which impairs their lubricating function and causes pain when breathing.
  74. an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis.
    COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  75. Rib shear
    Image Upload 6

    used to cut ribs to access pleural space.
  76. Swan-Ganz catheter
    Image Upload 7pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC) is the insertion of a catheter into a pulmonary artery. Its purpose is diagnostic; it is used to detect heart failure or sepsis, monitor therapy, and evaluate the effects of drugs.
  77. Folgarty
    • Image Upload 8
    • clamp For use with Hydragrip™ inserts.

    Allows for atraumatic grip of tissue.

    A variety of jaw surfaces allow for atraumatic grip of tissue and maximum traction in diverse applications.
  78. Groshong
    a type of both tunneled or non-tunneled intravenous catheter used for central venous access.Image Upload 9
  79. Javid
    atraumatic Clamp Image Upload 10
  80. Argyle
    Catheter Image Upload 11
  81. Vessel loops
    used to occlude, retract and identify vessels, veins, nerves and tendons during surgical procedures.Image Upload 12
  82. Suture boots
    Facilitates grasping and tagging without damage to delicate suturesImage Upload 13
  83. Hemoclip
    Image Upload 14
  84. Is performed for the evaluation of nodal involvement or mediastinal masses in patients with lung carcinoma. Typical of lesions found within the mediastinum are thymomas, lymphoma, and germ cell tumors. Position is supine with scapular roll to hyperextend neck. The surgeon makes a 1 to 2 cm transverse incision just above the suprasternal notch and carried down to the platysma muscle.
  85. is a surgical procedure to remove a lung. Removal of just one lobe of the lung is specifically referred to as a lobectomy, and that of a segment of the lung as a wedge resection (or segmentectomy). The position is posterolateral. It is a posterolateral incision that is made. Chest tubes are place.
    Pneumonectomy/closing the chest
  86. a surgical procedure done under general or local anaesthetic to aid in the treatment of varicose veins and other manifestations of chronic venous disease. The vein "stripped" (pulled out from under the skin using minimal incisions) is usually the great saphenous vein. Incisionc are lateral groin and lateral inferior knee.
    Vein stripping
  87. Tetralogy of Fallot is made up of the following four defects of the heart and its blood vessels: A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers―or ventricles―of the heart. A narrowing of the pulmonary valve and main pulmonary artery. The aortic valves, which opens to the aorta, is enlarged and seems to open from both ventricles, rather than from the left ventricle only, as in a normal heart, In this defect, the aortic valve sits directly on top of the ventricular septal defect. The muscular wall of the lower right chamber of the heart (right ventricle) is thicker than normal.
    Tetrology of Fallot
  88. a birth defect where there a blood vessel connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta. All fetus’s have a ductus arteriosus which function is to allow most of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus's fluid-filled non-functioning lungs. But the problem arises when the ductus arteriosus doesn’t disappear after birth.
    Patent ductus arteriosus
  89. a narrowing of the aorta, the large blood vessel that branches off your heart and delivers oxygen-rich blood to your body. ... Coarctation of the aorta is generally present at birth (congenital). It looks like a long balloon that was twisted in one spot.
    Coarctation of the Aorta
  90. a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood.
  91. a narrowing of the carotid arteries, the two major arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain.  It is caused by a buildup of plaque (atherosclerosis) inside the artery wall that reduces blood flow to the brain. Treatment aims to reduce the risk of stroke by controlling or removing plaque buildup and preventing blood clots.
    Carotid stenosis
  92. occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs. It can cause leg pain or swelling, but also can occur with no symptoms.
    Deep vein thrombosis
  93. a blockage in one of the pulmonary arteries in your lungs. In most cases, it is caused by blood clots that travel to the lungs from the legs or, rarely, other parts of the body (deep vein thrombosis).
    Pulmonary embolus
  94. a serious medical condition in which blood or fluids fill the space between the sac that encases the heart and the heart muscle. This places extreme pressure on your heart. The pressure prevents the heart's ventricles from expanding fully and keeps your heart from functioning properly.
    Cardiac tamponade
  95. chest can determine the overall size of the heart and great vessel configuration, as well as any valvular or intracoronary calcification. Asymptomatic pericardial cysts and cardiac tumors may also be detected on plane film.
    Chest X-ray
  96. CT Scan and MRI
    are useful for the evaluation of peri/intra/extra cardiac masses. CT scan is especially useful for the detection and evaluation of thoracic aorta dissection.  MRI can detect abnormal positioning of intracardiac structures.
  97. the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin
  98. a painless test that uses sound waves to create pictures of your heart. This test gives your doctor information about the size and shape of your heart and how well your heart's chambers and valves are working.
  99. imaging test that uses special cameras and a radioactive substance called a tracer to create pictures of your heart. The tracer is injected into your blood and travels to your heart. Nuclear heart scans use single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to detect the energy from the tracer to make pictures of your heart. This imaging test can detect if blood is not flowing to parts of the heart and can diagnose coronary heart disease. It also can check for damaged or dead heart muscle tissue, possibly from a previous heart attack, and assess how well your heart pumps blood to your body.
    Radionuclide imaging
  100. a minimally invasive procedure that tests the electrical conduction system of the heart to assess the electrical activity and conduction pathways of the heart.
    Electrophysiology study
  101. an imaging test that uses x-rays and a special dye to see inside the arteries.
  102. a procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. A long thin tube is inserted in an artery or vein in your groin, neck or arm and threaded through your blood vessels to your heart.
    Cardiac catheterization
  103. is a thrombolytic drug, sometimes called a "clot-busting" drug. It helps your body produce a substance that dissolves unwanted blood clots. Urokinase is used to treat blood clots in the lungs.
  104. is used to dissolve blood clots that have formed in the blood vessels. It is used immediately after symptoms of a heart attack occur to improve patient survival. streptokinase may also be used to treat blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism) and in the legs (deep venous thrombosis) .
  105. a vasodilator that relaxes smooth muscles in your blood vessels to help them dilate (widen). This lowers blood pressure and allows blood to flow more easily through your veins and arteries.
  106. # of vertebrae/into what categories and how many of each
    33 vertebrae in total, 24 upper spine, 11 in sacrum and coccyx.  7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 sascral.
  107. higher intellectual function, speech production, ipsilateral motor control.
    Frontal Lobe
  108. primary somatic sensory area (receives the information from sensory neurons).
    Parietal Lobe
  109. vision, visionary perception.
    Occipital lobe
  110. hearing, memory, speech perception.
    Temporal lobe
  111. coordination, located posteriorly
  112. motor speech
    Broca’s area
  113. auditory comprehension
    Wemicke’s area
  114. located at the lateral part of the knee, a branch of the sciatic nerve, which supplies movement and sensation to the lower leg, foot and toes.
  115. Parts of the vertebrae
    Image Upload 15
  116. a major nerve extending from the lower end of the spinal cord down the back of the thigh, and dividing above the knee joint.
  117. the longest cranial nerve. It contains motor and sensory fibers and, because it passes through the neck and thorax to the abdomen, has the widest distribution in the body.
  118. Penfield
    dissectors number 1-5Image Upload 16
  119. Kerrison
    ronguer used to remove bone and tissue.Image Upload 17
  120. Wilson
    Positioning deviceImage Upload 18
  121. Andrews
    Positioning deImage Upload 19vice
  122. Hall frames
    positioning deviceImage Upload 20
  123. nerve root retractor
    Image Upload 21
  124. Pituitary rongeur
    Image Upload 22
  125. Taylor retractor
    spinal retractorImage Upload 23
  126. Leyla-Yasargil
    self retaining cranial retractor with endoscope holder.Image Upload 24
  127. a surgical procedure most commonly used to remove a tumour of the pituitary gland. Transsphenoidal means through the sphenoid sinus. This is the air sinus (cavity) at the back of your nose. The pituitary tumour is removed through the nose. To remove a tumor of the pituitary gland. Dressing are petroleum gauze.
    Transsphenoidal hypophysectomy
  128. Procedure is done in prone position or lateral.  Removal of a herniate disc in the lumbar region.
    Lumbar discectomy
  129. a surgical procedure that primarily treats a condition called hydrocephalus. This condition occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collects in the brain's ventricles. CSF cushions your brain and protects it from injury inside your skull. Position is supine with head turned slightly.
    VP shunt
  130. a surgical procedure to sever nerve roots in the spinal cord. The procedure effectively relieves chronic back pain and muscle spasms. Position is prone. The nerve is severed using laser or electrosurgical probe.
  131. The removal of a vertebral disk in the neck with an anterior approach. The patient is in supine with shoulder roll and head turned slightly away from the affected side, the hip is elevated for the iliac graft. Dressing are inner contact layers, 4 x 4 pads, abd pad, cervical collar is placed.
    Anterior cervical discectomy
  132. a condition where median nerve is compressed by the transverse carpal ligament. (Transverse carpal ligament labeled at center.) The flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament, or anterior annular ligament) is a fibrous band on the palmar side of the hand near the wrist. Position is supine with arm extended. Splint or cast is applied.
    Carpal tunnel release
  133. is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant (very young) skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.
  134. commonly referred to as bone spurs are bony projections that form along joint margins.
  135. is a potent smooth muscle relaxant and it is widely used to treat or prevent cerebral vasospasm due to its vasodilator properties
    Papaverine (neuro)
  136. A sterile mixture of beeswax, paraffin, and isopropyl palmitate, a wax-softening agent. May be used for the control of bleeding from bone surfaces. Achieves local hemostasis of bone by acting as a mechanical barrier.
    Bone wax
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