1. 28 June 1389
    • Battle of Kosovo
    • Beginning of 500 years of Turkish Ottoman rule
    • Christian serbs leave the region over next few decades
    • Over next few centuries religious and ethnic balance tips towards Muslims and Albanians
  2. 1689 - 90
    Austrian invasion is repelled
  3. 1960s
    Belgrade shows increasing tolerance for Kosovar autonomy
  4. 1974
    • Yugoslav constitution recognizes autonomous status of Kosovo
    • de facto self-government
  5. Root cause
    • collapse of Yugoslavia
    • nationalism
  6. February 2008
    • Independence
    • Throws light on problematics of the exercise of self-determination
  7. 1878
    • Congress of Berlin - Albania remains subject to Ottoman rule
    • Albanian nationalists created League of Prizren
    • in defence of language and culture threatened by imminent collapse of Ottoman Empire
  8. Albanians under Ottoman Empire
    • around 750,000
    • mercenaries, advisers to Sultans, led commercial enterprises 
    • important
    • 70% adopted Islam
  9. Balkan Wars
    • 1912 - 1913
    • first all-european conflict in 20th century
    • confirmed Serbia as an aggressive new power
    • emergence of new state of Albania
    • introduced mass armies, industrial warfare and civilian displacement on a large scale
  10. First Balkan War
    • 1912-1913
    • loose alliance of Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, Montenegro against Ottoman Empire
    • alliance was called Balkan League, formed in early 1912 with Russian support
    • Aim: breaking Macedonia away from Turkey's control
    • Montenegro began it in October 1912
    • Turkey already fighting Italy
    • successful
    • Turkey collapse followed by an armistice in Dec 1912, also peace conference in London
  11. Treaty of London
    • May 1913
    • removed almost all Ottoman Empire's Europe territory
    • Albania gained sovereignty
    • Macedonia divided between Balkan allies
  12. Second Balkan War
    • June 1913
    • Serbia, Romania and Greece vs Bulgaria concerning Macedonia
    • Serbia and Greece form alliance
    • defeat Bulgaria
    • Bulgaria left with little portion of Macedonia
  13. WW1
    • Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip assassinated Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914
    • Albania retained neutrality
    • Serbian and Italian nationalism - if victory, would consume Balkans
    • October 1918 Serbia occupied Kosovo (regarded as heartland of Serbia)
    • Unease among Albanians - not slav
  14. between the wars
    • as compensation to Serbia the union of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
    • 1929 renamed Yugoslavia: Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia
    • dominated by Serbia
    • held together for 20 years
    • croats and slovenes wanted economic and political balance, serbs wanted to lead
    • characteristics: economic underdevelopment, ethnic tensions, weak institutions
    • stresses which would eventually result in military or monarchical dictatorship
  15. military and monarchical dictatorship
    • Serbian monarch King Aleksandar declared dictatorship in 1929, a year after assassination of Croatian leader Stjepan Radic
    • assassinated in Marseilles in 1934 by Croatian extremists
    • Bulgaria and Romania in 1930s become authoritarian due to economic and political problems
    • Greeks dissolved parliament + dictatorship under Ioannis Metaxas
    • Turkey one-party state under Kemal Ataturk until 1938
  16. Albanian dictatorship
    • Kosovo under Serb rule but caught up in Albanian politics
    • Ahmed Zogu seized power in 1922
    • declared himself King Zog in 1928
    • Albania = puppet state under Italian influence
    • annexed to Mussolini's Italy in 1939
    • Kosovo part of Greater Albania in 1941
  17. WW2
    • 1941 axis powers invaded Yugoslavia, German, Hungarian and Italian troops occupied whole Balkan Peninsula
    • old ethnic division turn into civil war: croats vs serbs
    • croats allied with axis powers
    • croat leader ante pavelic campaigns against non-croatian minorities (serbs, roma, jews) - genocide through ustasa
    • ustaša: croatian fascist movement, modelled on italian fascism, wanted croatian independence from yugoslavia
    • croatia: concentration camps (Jasenovac - killed mostly serbs)
    • resistance to axis powers and german occupying forces: chetniks (royalists, pro-serbian, under Draza Mihailovic, formed to resist axis invaders and croatian collaborators) and partisans (communist under Josip Broz Tito)
    • armed conflict between chetniks and partisans
    • 1994 allies switch from supporting chetniks to supporting partisans (more aggressive)
    • partisans: most effective resistance, drove German forces out by 1945, Yugoslavia suffered most per capita
  18. after WW2
    • political vacuum - both soviets and pro-western democracies sought to fill
    • surrender of Italy and Albania in 1943
    • Kosovo is a pawn, liberated in 1944 with the help of albanian partisans and communists
    • annexed to Serbia in February 1945 - autonomous region
    • Hoxha in Albania: dictator in Albania, isolated country, cult of personality
  19. beginning of Yugoslavia
    • liberated itself, independent
    • under Tito
    • tried to model it after Soviet Union
    • Stalin felt threatened
    • after January 1948 relationship between Yugoslavia and soviet union broke apart (Tito's plans to absorb Albania, support Greek communists, to enter economic cooperation and possible federation with Bulgaria) - potentially powerful bloc was of concern to Stalin
    • Bulgaria followed Stalin
    • Cominform moved out of Yugoslavia, satellite states voted to expel Yugoslavia from their organization at end of 1947
    • finding a 'third way' - reconciling elements of both right and left politics and economy
    • west offered Tito money to move towards western bloc
    • mid-1950s becomes one of the leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement
    • Stalin attempted to eliminate Tito multiple times
  20. Albania during Cold War
    • 1948 gives up demands for kosovo
    • Yugoslavia recognizes its provisional governments
    • Economic cooperation followed
    • under Enver Hoxha: more authoritarian, aligned with Moscow, closed borders with Yugoslavia, a programme of social engineering
    • regime improved health care, education, illiteracy
    • 1953 Stalin dies, relations with Soviets worsened
    • regime breaks with Soviet Union in early 1960s
    • alignment with China (limited assistance)
    • stagnation of economy
    • attempt at cultural revolution modeled on Mao's (closed religious institutions, sent intellectuals to countryside)
    • within a decade relations with China broke down
  21. Tito's rule
    • 'open' socialist country
    • attempt to balance power between republic
    • repression of nationalism
    • managing a course between east and west
    • re-established relations with Khurshchev
    • retained independence
    • did not break methods of communist rule
    • self-management: decision making could be taken to workers' councils in different republics
    • 1945 Kosovo and Vojvodina made autonomous units within Serbia - to weaken serbia
    • separated Montenegro into an independent republic
    • 1970s economic growth stagnates
    • 1974 new constitution - gave Kosovo an equivalent status to those of republics
    • exercised absolute power until death in May 1980
    • granted autonomy, but didn't surrender power
  22. Kosovo during Tito's rule
    • policies favored Albanian minority
    • migration of Serbs out of Kosovo
    • 1968: riot of albanian students in Pristina
    • followed by: establishment of University in Pristina in 1969-1970, allowed to display Albanian flag
  23. rise of nationalism
    • rise of serb nationalism in mid 1980s
    • began with protest over quality of food in the university canteen in pristina in March 1981
    • became more widespread - criticism of authorities
    • kosovo: unemployment levels highest in country
    • protests warranted state of emergency, troops from federal government
    • deaths unleashed nationalism of both serbs and albanians (suppressed by tito)
    • members of future KLA put on trial or imprisoned after 1981, series of purges of party officials
    • reaction to protests increased lack of trust and hostility between kosovo and government
    • mid 1980s steady stream of propaganda from belgrade - heavy impact on public serbian opinion
    • serbs still held most positions of power in kosovo
    • economic migrants perceived as victims of atrocities
    • albanian majority growing due to emigration  of serbs and greater birth rates among muslim albanians (70-77%, serbs fell from 25% to 15%)
  24. rise of slobodan milosevic
    • milosevic = member of serbian central committee
    • SANU memorandum published claim serbs were being subject to genocide in 1984 - term unleashed serb nationalism
    • Stambolic condemned document
    • 1987 serbian president ivan stambolic sent milosevic to kosovo
    • used nationalism to further own purpose
    • meeting on kosovo polje meant to quell trouble and reassure serbs - where battle of kosovo took place
    • planned broadcast of events
    • rallying call: no one should dare to beat you
    • stambolic forced to resign in december 1987, replaced by milosevic
  25. constitutional reform in yugoslavia
    • 1989 - 1991
    • role of media
    • milosevic continued to orchestrate demonstrations
    • made kosovo a leading issue
    • in order to gain control of yugoslav state he secured four votes out of 8
    • by winning over people through nationalism, replacing leaders with his own people, he secured vojvodina in 1988, montenegro in 1989
    • november 1988 leaders of kosovo's communist party were dismissed
    • belgrade stripped kosovo of autonomy in 1988, gained kosovo vote
    • when albanian leaders were replaced, miners of trepca demonstrated, marched to pristina (mine was 70% of country's wealth) - dismissed by serb media as counter-revolutionary moves
    • serb nationalists organise massive rally in belgrade
    • federal parliament adopted constitutional changes - kosovo voted for its own dissolution as an autonomous unit
    • 28 march 1989 new constitution was declared, protests in kosovo continued
    • serbia controlled four of eight votes
  26. gazimestan speech
    • on 600th anniversary of battle of kosovo
    • 28 june 1989
    • speech not inflammatory in itself
    • referred to historical uncertainty of the battle
    • allusions to nationalism
  27. 1989 year of change
    • protests in kosovo continued, were dealt with by forces of law and order
    • slovenia changed its constitution
    • break up of soviet union and fall of berlin wall
    • slovenia and croatia left the last party congress of yugoslavia on january 1990 in belgrade
  28. disintegration of yugoslavia
    • 1991 slovenia and croatia break away from yugoslav federation
    • milan kucan and franjo tudjman as presidents
    • problems in croatia due to 12% serbian population - opposed secession
    • gained status of national minority
    • croatian serbs in knin formed a separatist body calle SAO Krajina (resistance to croatian authorities in summer 1990)
    • december 1991 croatian serbs created the republic of serbian krajina
  29. croatia's war for independece
    • declared independence in June 1991
    • fighting already in April (serbian krajina, supported by yugoslav people's army which was mostly serb)
    • war in croatia due to ethnic hatreds, brutal, yugoslav army targeted civilian areas including dubrovnik and split
  30. slovenia's war for independence
    • declared independence in June 1991
    • 10 days
    • june 1991 government took control over border posts and international airport
    • after three days european community proposed ceasefire
    • conflict ended on June 7
    • less than 100 dead on both sides
    • small number of ethnic serbs, slovenia expected international community to intervene, milosevic not concerned with slovenia's independence
    • independence recognized by european community in following year
  31. repression of albanian independence campaign
    • kosovo's campaign for independence overshadowed
    • 1989 special measures adopted to control dissent in the province to separate from serbia
    • summer 1990 further protests in kosovo
    • july - albanian delegates meet in front of assmbly building to declare kosovo an independent republic
    • a week later serbian parliament dissolved the kosovo assembly and banned albanian language media and broadcasts
    • september 1990 same delegates met and drew up constitution for the republic of kosovo
    • decided they would seek full independece
    • september 1991 referendum, 99% vote in favour of independent state - was proclaimed
    • role of LDK (democratic league of kosovo) founded in 1989 led by Ibrahim Rugova
  32. Rugova
    • pacifist
    • advocated province should be a democratic sovereign state independent of serbia
    • worked to develop a parallel system of education, health services and local government (denied to albanians by serbs in 1990s)
    • peaceful approach led to kosovo being ignored in the dayton agreements (Ohio 1995)
    • after 1995 serbs turned attention back towards kosovo, rugova's role changed
    • elected as president in 1992, not granted international recognition
    • KLA formed in 1996 due to increasing frustration
    • re-elected in 1998, 2002, 2004
    • president until death in January 2006
  33. bosnian war
    • April 1992 - December 1995
    • lessons learned from rwanda had an impact
    • intervention in 1999 in kosovo
    • 44% muslims, 31% serbs, 17% croats, 5% other
    • serb minority objected to secession - would leave them a minority
    • declared independence in April 1992
    • serbs and croats in bosnia wanted to annex bosnian territory for their own states
    • milosevic and tito met in march 1991 to work out a deal over the division of bosnia in the case of war
    • milosevic created a serbian army in bosnia - began 'cleansing' large areas
    • genocide
    • over 100,000 killed, 1 mill displaced, 50,000 women raped
    • massacres in Prijedor in 1992 and Srebrenica 1995
    • Omarska detention camp in Northern Bosnia 1992
    • siege of Sarajevo in 1992 (11,500 dead)
    • destruction of old bridge by croats in 1993
    • declaration of safe zones for muslims by un in 1995: srebrenica, sarajevo, tuzla, bihac, zepa, gorazde
    • nato air strikes in 1994 and 1995
    • use of air power in bosnia in 1995
  34. impact of bosnian war on kosovo
    • rugova refused to back the croats against the serbs in early 1990s - prevented ethnic cleansing in kosovo
    • bosnian war made situation more dangerous for albanians
    • economic deterioration in serbia affected kosovo
    • KLA begins attacks in 1996
  35. slide into war
    • 1995 dayton agreements don't acknowledge kosovo's status
    • slide into war 1996-1998
    • KLA: founded in early 1990s, disorganized collection of disaffected kosovar albanians
    • 1996 KLA starts actively engaging in coordinated attacks on serbian police stations and public places
    • attacks escalated over next two years
    • terrorist methods
    • weapons easily available due to financial collapse of albania in summer of 1997
    • clashes between students and authorities in pristina
    • Serbia and US see KLA as terrorists
    • June 1998 US initiates talks with KLA
    • March 1998 attempted arrest of one of the founders of KLA by Serbian police - killed in the attempt, made a martyr
  36. shadow state
    • 1990 - 1998
    • in protest against serbia
    • rugova
    • boycotting serbain authorities in kosovo - boycotted elections
    • by doing so they actually kept milosevic in power (they needed him to have something to fight against - a cause that would lead them to independence)
  37. 1981 student protests
    • provoked by economic and social deterioration
    • labeled as counter revolutionary
    • protesters sentenced to prison
    • yugoslav authorities unwilling to recognize their demands - only rallied more albanians to the cause
    • radicalized both nationalisms
  38. 1981 census
    • proved serbs had become a minority
    • used for political gain
  39. ethnic cleansing
    • 1998 - serbian government confirms consideration of kla's actions as armed insurrection
    • heavy-handed reaction - increased support for kla
    • rugova reelected in 1998 - still pacifist, out of step with others who urged demanding of full independence
    • escalation of violence - serb forces try to destroy KLA and regain control
    • KLA continued with violence - dayton agreements showed that was the only way to gain attention of the west
    • cleansing went both ways
  40. monica lewinsky affair
    • summer of 1998
    • Clinton trying to divert attention
    • Richard Holbrooke (chief negotiator) sent to Belgrade for talks with Milosevic, met representatives of the KLA (endorsed legitimacy)
  41. UN response
    • due to media images
    • UN Security Council adopted resolution 1199 in 1998
    • UN passed 4 resolutions in 1998
    • in March UN recommended an arms embargo be imposed to include Yugoslavia and Kosovo in Resolution 1160 - encouraged dialogue, continued to recognize Kosovo as part of FRY
    • September resolution stated situation had deteriorated
    • Resolution 1199: called for international monitors (facilitation of return of refugees), allowing humanitarian aid
    • October 1998 agreement between Milosevic and Holbrooke - verification missions followed
    • Two further resolutions in 1998
    • November 1998 the second of these - condemned FRY government for failing to hand into custody individuals wanted by the ICTY
  42. Kosovo Verification Mission
    • US government pushed for European involvement, threatened NATO air strikes against Serbia
    • October 1998 - KVM agreement for a ceasefire
    • Unarmed observers would monitor peace in Kosovo, aerial surveillance would ensure compliance, elections in kosovo in 9 months would offer representation for Kosovar Albanians
    • KVM achieved little - violence continued to intensify
    • By end of 1998 KVM withdrew
  43. Racak Massacre
    • January 1999
    • forced West to act
    • Serbian security forces said to have killed Albanian civilians in Racak village
    • turning point
    • village had been centre of KLA actions
    • Serbs prepared offensive against KLA, occupied village, herded civilians in outskirts and shot them
    • Serbs contested this version - stated there had been KLA fighters who had dressed in civilian clothing in the area
    • head of KVM William Walker accused Serbs of massacre
    • his actions helped incite international opinion in favour of Kosovar Albanians
    • US adopted more forceful policy towards Serbia, later NATO campaign and Serbian defeat and withdrawal
    • massacre is controversial - lawful reaction of serbs against terrorists or a massacre?
    • walker called for investigation by international community - serbs shelled racak, took bodieschief prosecutor of ICTY Louise Arbour refused entry into Kosovo by government
    • Finnish team of forensic pathologists conducted post-mortem after the yugoslav authorities and Belarusian team
    • investigations have failed to establish what took place other than 45 victims
  44. rambouillet peace talks
    • february 1999
    • clinton after lewinsky scandal - need to promote regional stability in the balkans, assert position, preserve their own and nato's credibility
    • leaders from both sides, representatives of us, france, britain, germany, italy and russia 
    • in the french chateau of rambouillet
    • milan milutinovic represented serbs (hardline approach)
    • hashim thaci represented albanians
    • initial refusal by both sides to sign
    • for serbs: kosovo was still a domestic issue
    • accords demanded serbs allow nato almost complete access to all of FRY - surrender of sovereignty, refused to sign
    • for albanians: accords did not involve referendum on eventual independence, required kla disarmament, did not reject outright
    • agreement to meet in march
  45. rambouillet peace talks continuation
    • 15 march 1999
    • albanians signed accords
    • accords were an ultimatum, idea of no negotiations at all, created so serbs could be blamed for breakdown and moves towards military action could be undertaken
    • Hilbrooke met with Milosevic in early march to assert that failure to sign would mean military action
    • burden of guilt for west (rwanda, srebrenica)
    • 18 march 1999 albanians, us, british signed - serbs and russia refused
  46. post-rambouillet
    • 20 march 1999 - international monitors pulled out of kosovo
    • yugoslav forces ready to move into kosovo right as they were pulling out
    • 21 march Holbrooke visited belgrade to warn of impending action
    • nato wished to show relevance on 50th anniversary
    • acting through nato - us and europe bypassed un and opposition from russia and china
  47. operation allied force
    • 24 march 1999
    • against serbia
    • lasted 77 days
    • ended on 10 june 1999
  48. nato intervention controversy
    • kosovo = domestic insurgency
    • nato founded to defend europe against aggression - in kosovo acting beyond its neutral position
    • never before used military power - proving its usefulness
    • nato = no action, talk only - proving it wrong
    • use of considerable firepower against a sovereign state in defence of an ethnic group, without approval of UN security council
    • kosovo - hardly genocide, not overwhelming refugees
    • cca 38,000 missions flown - one third strike missions with specific targets
    • two aircrafts didnt return
    • precision campaign
    • Serbia had hid military hardware in hospital areas and school, moved troops under red cross convoys
    • largest combat operation in history of nato
    • most sustained military operation in Europe since WW2
    • most successful example of strategic bombing in history
    • 14 allied nations contributed, US over 700 aircraft, the rest 300 (mostly Italians and French, Britain fourth)
    • predicted to be a short campaign to convince milosevic to agree to terms
    • us announced they wouldn't put troops on the ground
    • serbs might have thought russians would come to aid
  49. targetting serbs
    • campaign devised to hit targets hard and fast
    • to convince milosevic and display firepower
    • over 1000 targets: military installations, security forces, facilities, factories, state infrastructure
    • consensus war - balancing of military fighting with political ramifications of winning war
    • all involved countries had to agree to targets
    • reasons for this method: need to take advantage of air superiority, avoiding positioning of ground troops, minimalizing casualties, avoiding direct conflict
  50. how the war was fought
    • nato - superior weaponry, 1k aircrafts
    • 450 tomahawk cruise missiles
    • destroyed over 50% of key headquarters and power stations
    • missiles had 90% achievement rate
  51. opening days of campaign + after
    • destruction of serbia's air defences, key military targets
    • after - smaller targets on ground, in Kosovo, in Montenegro
    • most military campaigns - opinions of commanders at odds with politicians, diplomats, civilian population
    • in yugoslavia public saw war through government lens - innocent victim of nato aggression
    • kofi annan (secretary general) supported intervention in principle
    • un identified kosovo crisis as threat to international peace and security through 1998 resolution
  52. air campaign continues
    • west - images of refugees, not seen in serbia or montenegro
    • support sorties (targets identified by accompanying aircraft) result of special circumstances of war and aims established by nato
    • nato aims: in 17 point statement, a month after bombing campaign was underway
  53. success of air campaign
    • remarkable
    • turning point in aerial warfare for 21st century
    • flying and bombing would be from 15k feet to avoid planes being put at risk
    • support air spotters directed bombers to targets
  54. collateral damage during campaign
    14 april 1999 bombing of a column of kosovar albanian refugees, killing more than 80 people - used by serbs as propaganda, increased international pressure to halt campaign
  55. wesley clark
    • us general
    • commanded nato forces during operation
    • served as supreme allied commander europe of nato from 1997 to 2000
    • had served in bosnian war
    • criticized at home when pushing for deployment of ground troops
    • first us general to win a war without losing any soldiers in combat
    • didn't obey military command, bad attitude - unlikeable
    • clark 'relinquished' position after war, not reappointed
  56. serbian response to bombing
    • yugoslav army one of best equipped military forces in eastern europe
    • sixth largest in the world
    • forced to hide from air attacks - successful in doing so (rugged terrain, poor weather)
    • hid under bridges, in villages and towns, walked in civilian convoys, used red cross vehicles
  57. april 1999
    • nato bombed belgrade
    • took out ministry of interor, concentration on electrical grids, refineries, bridges
    • 23 april attack on media outlets - bombed state television (11 civilian casualties)
  58. bombing of chinese embassy
    • 7 may 1999
    • accidental, killed 3 journalists
    • real target over 400m away
    • result of technological error made by cia intelligence operatives due to outdated maps
    • chinese reaction: us embassies and companies in china attacked, protests in china
    • worsened relations between nato and chinese and russians (against use of force)
    • us offered financial compensation
  59. nato and public opinion
    • diplomatic efforts at the same time as campaign
    • some considered it as us ability to win a war being held back by political necessities
    • all western governments concerned about public opinion
    • sustained bombing could backfire
    • media campaign and conduct of war sufficiently balanced to achieve consensus
  60. ethnic cleansing and refugee crisis
    • nato campaign responded to campaign of ethnic cleansing being carried out by serbs against kosovar albanians
    • nato campaign created mass exodus of people from kosovo
    • allies coordinated humanitarian assistance operations - operation allied harbour, continued during and after conflict
    • justification of nato
    • bombing of belgrade accelerated ethnic cleansing
    • within three weeks of start of bombing over half a million refugees fled Kosovo (cca 850k albanians)
    • nato campaign provided impetus and cover for carrying out of ethnic cleansing, revenge killings
    • refugees at borders stripped of valuables, belongings, personal identification documents - identity cleansing - more difficult for refugees to return
    • media tarnished image of serbian government
  61. kosovar albanians forced to leave
    • served serb purpose
    • rapid change of kosovo demographic
    • forcing a split into separate serbian and albanian provinces
    • tying down nato's efforts, weakening their resolve to fight, terrifying people into submission
    • forced exodus achieved none of these - provoked sympathy for kosovar albanians
  62. operation horseshoe
    • plan of ethnic cleansing
    • two phases: destroying kla, cleansing kosovo of ethnic albanians
    • second phase accomplished by squeezing out albanian population from three sides
    • serbs denied systematic plan existed - allowed to move population for their own safety, claim it was nato campaign driving out albanians
    • at icty milosevic denied existence of plan - couldn't be verified
  63. end of nato campaign
    • april 1999 - pressure for ground troops (british pm)
    • bombing campain brought strains on Yugoslav government
    • after power grids destroyed on 24 may - leaked info on possible ground troops
    • info convinced milosevic of new phase
    • diplomats trying to find solution which wouldn't reward milosevic or see kosovo occupied
    • impetus for negotiation from russia
  64. role of russia
    • supporter of serbs
    • bris yeltsin sent representative viktor hernomyrdin, former russian pm, to belgrade for talks with milosevic
    • met on 5 occasions in may
    • yeltsin invited milosevic to moscow - informed him russia would support international proposal for 10-point programme calling for a ceasefire, international monitoring and settlement of kosovo issue
    • russian economy hurting - yeltsin needed western support
  65. formal end to war
    • 10 june 1999
    • ceasefire agreement incorporated into UN Security Council resolution 1244
    • air strikes stopped, nato had won
    • milosevic addressed nation (televised)
  66. kosovo force (kfor)
    • task force of peacekeepers
    • created through un security council resolution 1244 of june 10th
    • objectives to bring return of safe and secure environment for people of kosovo
    • achieved through: end of violence and repression in kosovo, withdrawal from kosovo of military, police, paramilitary forces, establishment of interim administration to be declared by security council, safe and free return of all refugees and displaced persons, unimpeded access to kosovo by humanitarian organizations, political process towards establishment of interim political framework agreement providing for self-government for Kosovo, demilitarization of kla, stabilization and economic develpment of crisis region
    • operating under auspices of un
    • would remain under nato military command
    • 30 countries pledged 48k troops
    • operation joint guardian - ensuring withdrawal of serbian forces
    • first kfor commander was lieutenant-general michael jackson from uk
    • began work on june 12 1999
    • italy, uk, usa, france, germany were given zone'sector of kosovo
    • british had pristina and airport
  67. incident at pristina
    • 12 june 1999
    • confrontation between kfor troops and russian forces over control of pristina airport
    • russian military high command dispatched 250 elite soldiers to take control of the airfield
    • clark ordered nato troops to take control of the airport by force if necessary - order to disarm russian soldiers
    • leaders on ground refused to do this - jackson met russians, had drink with commander, sorted out potential problems
    • clark's orders also alienated diplomats in us, contributed to decision to remove him early from nato command
    • fragility of relations between major powers
    • illustrated strength and determination of nato to follow through with its mission
  68. serbs withdraw from kosovo
    • june 20, 1999
    • peace agreement between nato and yugoslavia ends conflict
    • 1.5 million displaced albanians
    • most serbs leace region, reprisals against remaining
  69. impact of bombing
    • infrastructure damaged (bridges, houses, roads)
    • law and order collapsed
    • kla gains control
    • jurisdiction given to un - un interim administration mission in kosovo (unmik)
    • unmik ran civil administration, police, justice
    • eu in charge of economic reconstruction
  70. economic and social impact of conflict
    • lack of economic opportunities, unemployment, lack of security
    • poverty 
    • tensions continued, sporadic violence broke out
  71. rebuilding economy
    • natural resources - mineral deposits (lignite)
    • mining formed backbone of economy in yugoslavia (trepca mines)
    • economy needed modernization, infrastructure outdated
    • industry required direct investment, inclusion into wider european market
    • after war: economy based on agriculture, 80% output product of subsistence farming (wheat, potatoes, corn, dairy, fruit) - 13% of gdp
    • economy dependent on foreign aid
    • post-war reconstruction generated temporary boom
    • main trade partners: immediate neighbours
    • had been dependent on remittances from kosovar immigrants in yugoslavia
    • accepted euro - keeping inflation low
    • high unemplyment, at 45% - emigration
    • black market economy
  72. reconstruction
    houses and basic infrastructure rebuilt in 3 years after war
  73. refugee problem
    • death toll debated (cca 10k)
    • 800k albanians fled kosovo
  74. acts of revenge
    • serbs and romas targeted by albanians
    • kla responsible for many reprisals
    • burning and looting of homes
    • destruction of orthodox churches and monasteries
    • displacement of serb and roma minorities
    • change in demographics
    • many fled after serbian loss - displacement
    • serbian media institutions removed - no serbian domination of society
    • remaining minorities form enclaves in kosovo (mainly rural serbs)
    • no social inclusion - society fragmented (anti-serb riots)
  75. rugova during war
    • appearance with milosevic in april 1999 - tarnished reputation
    • taken to belgrade against his will 
    • under house arrest until may 1999 - left for italy, temporary exile
    • returned month after ceasefire
  76. political impact of conflict
    • divisions within political scene 
    • initially run by unmik as un protectorate
    • basis that kosovo would become multi-ethnic state
    • desire for independence
  77. disbanding of kla
    • international community wanted wanted multicultural kosovo
    • kla less popular
    • weeks after conflict attempted to gain power locally - fill vacuum left by serb administration
    • resolution 1244 called for disarming of kla - achieved by absorbing members into kosovo protection force (kpc)
    • un set up police force - kosovo police service
    • kfor commander and hashim thaci (leader of kla) signed agreement for transformation of kla
    • kla overshadowed other political parties
    • international community more comfortable with ldk - pacifict
  78. reformation of kla into political party
    • before october 2000 elections
    • some members into kosovo protection force
    • some members into new political party democratic party of kosovo (pdk)
    • some members established party of democratic progress (pdkk) - july 1999
  79. elections october 2000
    • first local elections
    • rugova won (ldk - 60%)
    • violence against members of political parties continued after elections
    • economic issues, social difficulties
    • lack of effective action by un and peacekeeping forces
    • absence of law and judiciary
  80. rugova elected president by kosovan parliament
    • february 2002
    • appointed in march
  81. first direct talks between serbian and kosovo leaders
    october 2003
  82. 19 people killed in mitrovica
    • march 2004
    • clashes between serbs and others
  83. rugova re-elected by parliament
    • december 2004
    • head of state
  84. rugova dies
    january 2006, pristina
  85. un unveils plan for independence
    february 2007
  86. hashim thaci wins general election
    november 2007
  87. kosovo declares independence
    • 17 february 2008
    • 92% albanians, 8% serbs
    • not recognized by serbia or russia
  88. icty
    • set up on may 1993
    • to bring all trials to conclusion by the end of 2015
    • first tribunal since ww2 criminals tried
    • jurisdiction over violations of geneva convention, methods of waging war, crimes against humanity, genocide
    • modified since to enable addressing in post-conflict situations
    • three main branches: chambers (judges and support staff), registry (administrative duties), office of prosecutor (investigating crimes, presenting cases at trial)
    • first reference to kosovo in 1998 after serbian attack in drenica
    • january 1999 - chief prosecutor louise arbour refused entry to investigate racak massacre
    • icty set up office in albania when nato bombing began
    • four indicted besides milosevic for murder, persecution and deportation in kosovo
    • carla del ponte appealed to investigate crimes comitted after conflict ended - addressing allegations of ethnic cleansing against serb and roma
  89. justice in kosovo
    • lack of expertise - criticism over people found guilty on spurious evidence
    • kla members convicted too
    • icty mandate extended - indicted former kla members (mostly acquitted)
  90. rape as weapon of war
  91. final years of milosevic
    • called for presidential elections in serbia in september 2000 - reaffirming grip on power
    • unsuccessful - tried to call for second round of voting - riots
    • loss of support of army leadership, accepted defeat
  92. indictment of milosevic
    • 27 may 1999 icty announced milosevic was to be indicted for war crimes and crimes against humanity - sending message to people of determination of international community
    • would not be able to hide behind diplomatic immunity as head of state
    • september 1999 del ponte announced top priority was investigation and prosecution of milosevic - urged pressuring of new yugoslav authorities
    • milosevic still popular - support from russia and others
  93. arrest of milosevic
    • january 2001 - del ponte visited belgrade to meet with president kostunica
    • lack of cooperation - only cooperated when money aid involved
    • serbian police arrested milosevic on 1 april - 5 april on behalf of icty
    • first former head of state to stand trial for crimes against humanity
    • june 2001 transferred into custody of icty
    • 2 july 2001 appeared in court
  94. trial of milosevic
    • 12 february 2002 - march 2006
    • ended inconclusively due to death
    • charges of violating laws of war, breaching geneva convention, genocide in bosnia, crimes against humanity
    • charges with genocide and complicity in genocide, murder, persecutions on political, racial, religious grounds of comitting inhumane acts such as forcible transfer, unlawful deportation, torture, killing, plunder of public or private property, attacks on civilians, destruction of historic monuments
    • at the hague
  95. death of milosevic
    • health deteriorated
    • request to transfer to moscow denied
    • died of heart attack
    • mixed reactions
  96. truth and reconciliation commission in serbia
    • established by kostunica 
    • demonstration of serbs ability to administer their own justice to their own people
    • disbanded in two years
    • dealt with only low-level crimes
  97. icty achievements
    • dealt with 91 cases
    • milosevic claims: no legal authority, not created on broad international basis
    • critics: tribunal worsened tensions, didn't promote reconciliation
    • majority of sentenced were serbs
  98. international reaction and impact of kosovo war
    • nato campaign hailed as victory for democracy, rule of law, rights of oppressed minorities - selective thinking
    • nato campaign opposed by china and russia, also india
    • importance of national sovereignty
Card Set
conflict and intervention: kosovo