1. The following is a list of some of the structures of the respiratory tree: 

    1. secondary bronchi,
    2. Bronchioles,
    3. alveolar ducts,
    4. primary bronchi,
    5. respiratory bronchioles,
    6. Alveoli, 
    7. terminal bronchioles.
    The order in which air passes through these structures beginning at the trachea is:
  2. increase or dicrease
    1.Swimming under water without scuba or snorkel?
    3.increase H+?
    4.Holding ones breath
    5.increase CO2?
    1. increase 2.increase 3.increase 4.increase 5.increase
  3. Right or left shift?
    2.increase pH?
    3.increase in DPG?
    4.increase in CO2?
    5.increase in H= ion concentration?
    6.increase temperature?
    7.An increase in altitude?
    1.right 2.left 3.right 4.right 5.right 6.right 7.right
  4. The binding of an antigen to an antibody can result in

  5. The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluids is

  6. The walls of the alveoli are composed of 2 types of cells, type 1 and 2 the cell of type 2 is
    a.to secrete surfactant
  7. Immunity that results from the natural exposure to an antigen in the environment is called  

  8. Adaptive, innate, or innate and adaptive?
    1.memory cells?
    2.CD4 & CD8 cells?
    3.skin and mucous membranes?
    4.complement and interferon?
    1. adaptive 2. adaptive 3. innate 4.adaptive and innate
  9. Match.
    1.Part of MALT found in the wall of ileum?
    2.Part of MALT...
    3. Part of MALT, found attached to cecum-
    1. payer's patch 2. tonsils 3. appendix
  10. Which muscle contracts during exercise to cause the moment of label 6?
    A. rectus abdominis and internal intercostal
  11. A student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he expelled would be his?
    A. vital capacity
  12. About 95% of the volume of each RBC
    A. erythrocyte 95% of the volume of the formal elements
  13. Binds loosely and reversible to oxygen?
    A. hemoglobin
  14. Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported by?
    A. hemoglobin
  15. A fibrous protein that gives shape to an RBC plasma membrane.
  16. The respiratory membrane consists primarily of?
    simple squamous epithelium
  17. The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the ________ center.
    DRG & VRG
  18. Helper T-cell
    promote activation & proliferaction of other T-cells
  19. Which of the following is not a phase of erythropoiesis? 

  20. Air entering the body is filtered, warmed and humidified by the?
    upper respiratory tract
  21. Air and food are routed into the proper channels by the ________.
    C) larynx
  22. Serves as a common passageway for food and air
  23. The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the _____ cells.

  24. In quiet breathing, 
    A) inspiration and expiration involve muscular contractions. 
    B) inspiration is passive and expiration involves muscular contractions. 
    C) inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive. 
    D) inspiration and expiration are both passive. 
    E) inspiration is deep and forceful.
    C. inspiration involves muscular contraction and expiration passive
  25. The partial pressure of oxygen in pulmonary artery is approximately

    B) 100 mm Hg.
  26. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the pulmonary artery is approximately

    A) 45 mm Hg.
  27. What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production? 

  28. Anatomically lymph vessels resemble
    medium veins
  29. The following steps in the cell meditated immune response?
  30. intrapulmonary pressure s the?
    pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
  31. Tidal volume is/in air?
    A. Exchanged during normal breathing
  32. When the diaphgram and external intercostal muscles contract
    The volume of the thoracic cavity increases
  33. Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues? 

  34. The chloride shifts occurs when?
    A. Biacarbonate ions leave the RBC
  35. As red blood cells age ________.

  36. The partial pressure of oxygen in systolic aerial blood is approximately?
    75% and 100 mmHg
  37. What is surfacant?
    surface tension... oil secretion helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing
  38. Universal donor?
    A. A
    B. B
    C AB+
    E. none of the above
  39. The thymus is most active during?
    A. childhood
  40. The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.

  41. Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is bound to?
  42. Pulmonary ventilation refers to the
    Movement of air into and out of the lungs
  43. Immunity that results from antibodies that pass through the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity. 
    A) active 
    B) naturally acquired passive 
    C) passive 
    D) auto 
    E) innate
    B. naturally pass
  44. The larynx is composed of ___ cartilages
  45. The most important chemical regulator of respiration is 

  46. Which of the following is not a type of T-cell?
  47. Prolonged deep inspirations can result from stimulating the ________ center. 

  48. Which is not a cardial sign of inflammation?
  49. 2) Which of the following is 
    associated with passive immunity? 

  50. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in systemic artorial blood s?
    40 mmHg
  51. Carbon dioxide is more soluble in water than oxygen. To get the same amount of oxygen to dissolve in plasma as carbon dioxide, you would have to

  52. The only T-cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are?
    Cytotoxic cells
  53. The pleurae are vital to the integrity of the lungs because ________.
    D) they produce a lubricating serous secretion, allowing the lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing
  54. Bone Picture!!!!
    1. Area where the B cells become immunocompetent? C
    2. Area where T cells become immunocompetent? B
    3. Area where acivated immunocompetent B and T cell re-circulate? E
    4. Area where antigen challenge and clonal selection are most likely t occur? D
    1.C 2.B 3.E 4.D
  55. The cells responsible for production of circulatory antibodes are ____ cells?
    Plasma cells
  56. Mucosa of the upper respiratory tract is ciliated
    Cilia sweep dust and bacteria laden mucus awat from lower respiratory pasages
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