the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate one's environment or to think abstractly as measured by objective criteria
capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding,and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.
How a mere handful of matter can ______ (4) a world far larger and more complicated than itself.
perceive, understand, predict and manipulate
the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior
the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings.
The ______ occurs when onlookers discount the behavior of an artificial intelligence program by arguing that it is not real intelligence.
Thinking Humanly and Thinking Rationally are concerned with _______
thought processes and reasoning
Acting Humanly and Acting Rationally are concerned with ________
Thinking Humanly and Acting Humanly measure success in terms of fidelity to _______
Thinking Rationally and Acting Rationally measure against an ______ performance measure, called __________
The _________, proposed by Alan Turing (1950), was designed to provide a satisfactory operational deﬁnition of intelligence. A computer passes the test if a human interrogator, after posing some written questions, cannot tell whether the written responses come from a person or from a computer.
Acting humanly: Turing Test
The computer would need to possess the following capabilities in Turing test:
natural language processing
Enabling the computer to communicate successfully in English
natural language processing
Storing what the computer knows or hear
Using the stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions
Adapting to new circumstances and to detect and extrapolate patterns
Turing’s test deliberately avoided direct physical interaction between the interrogator and the computer, because _________ simulation of a person is unnecessary for intelligence.
Includes a video signal so that the interrogator can test the subject’s perceptual abilities, as well as the opportunity for the interrogator to pass physical objects “through the hatch.”
Total Turing Test
To pass the total Turing Test, the computer will need:
To pass the total Turing Test, the computer will need to have computer vision to ________ and robotics to _________
perceive objects, manipulate objects and move about
Get inside the actual workings of human minds
Cognitive modeling approach
Three ways to get inside the mind:
Trying to catch our own thoughts as they go by
observing a person in action
observing the brain in action
The interdisciplinary ﬁeld of _________ brings together computer models from AI and experimental techniques from psychology to construct precise and testable theories of the human mind.
Necessarily based on experimental investigation of actual humans or animals.
Real cognitive science
The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the ﬁrst to attempt to codify _______ that is, irrefutable reasoning processes
Aristotle's ________ provided patterns for argument structures that always yielded correct conclusions when given correct premises. (meaning: deductive reasoning)
The laws of thought were supposed to govern the operation of the mind; their study initiated the ﬁeld called ______.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle was one of the ﬁrst to attempt to codify "right thinking" that is, irrefutable reasoning processes. His syllogisms provided patterns for argument structures that always yielded correct conclusions when given correct premises.
Thinking rationally: “laws of thought”
If we are going to say that a given program thinks like a human, we must have some way of determining how humans think.
Thinking humanly: cognitive modeling
Something that acts
computer agents do these:
perceive their environment
persist over a prolonged time period
adapt to change
create and pursue goals
A ________ is one that acts so as to achieve the best outcome or, when there is uncertainty, the best expected outcome.
_________ is sometimes part of being a rational agent, because one way to act rationally is to reason logically to the conclusion that a given action will achieve one’s goals and then to act on that conclusion.
Making correct inferences
All the skills needed for the Turing Test also allow an agent to act rationally. _________ enable agents to reach good decisions.
Knowledge representation and reasoning
The rational-agent approach has two advantages over the other approaches:
more general than the “laws of thought"
more amenable to scientiﬁc development than the other 2
Acting appropriately when there is not enough time to do all the computations one might like.
The ﬁrst to formulate a precise set of laws governing the rational part of the mind. He developed an informal system of syllogisms for proper reasoning, which in principle allowed one to generate conclusions mechanically, given initial premises.
_______ had the idea that useful reasoning could actually be carried out by a mechanical artifact.
Proposed that reasoning was like numerical computation, that “we add and subtract in our silent thoughts.”
Designed but did not build a mechanical calculator
Leonardo da Vinci
The ﬁrst known calculating machine was constructed around 1623 by _________
Wrote that “the arithmetical machine produces effects which appear nearer to thought than all the actions of animals.”and built the Pascaline in 1642.
Built a mechanical device intended to carry out operations on concepts rather than numbers, but its scope was rather limited and surpassed Pascal by building a calculator that could add, subtract, multiply, and take roots, whereas the Pascaline could only add and subtract
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
In his 1651 book ________, Thomas Hobbes suggested the idea of an “artiﬁcial animal,” arguing “For what is the heart but a spring; and the nerves, but so many strings; and the joints, but so many wheels.”
Gave the ﬁrst clear discussion of the distinction between mind and matter and of the problems that arise. One problem with a purely physical conception of the mind is that it seems to leave little room for free will: if the mind is governed entirely by physical laws, then it has no more free will than a rock “deciding” to fall toward the center of the earth.
Descartes was a strong advocate of the power of reasoning in understanding the world, a philosophy now called _________.
Descartes was also a proponent of ________. He held that there is a part of the human mind (or soul or spirit) that is outside of nature, exempt from physical laws. Animals, on the other hand, did not possess this dual quality; they could be treated as machines.
An alternative to dualism is _______, which holds that the brain’s operation according to the laws of physics constitutes the mind. Free will is simply the way that the perception of available choices appears to the choosing entity.
Given a physical mind that manipulates knowledge, the next problem is to establish the source of knowledge.
The empiricism movement, starting with _________’s Novum Organum, is characterized by a dictum of ________: “Nothing is in the understanding, which was not ﬁrst in the senses.”
Francis Bacon, John Locke
________’s A Treatise of Human Nature proposed what is now known as the principle of induction.
That general rules are acquired by exposure to repeated associations between their elements
Building on the work of Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, the famous ________, led by ________, developed the doctrine of ___________.
Vienna Circle, Rudolf Carnap, logical positivism
This doctrine holds that all knowledge can be characterized by logical theories connected, ultimately, to _________ that correspond to sensory inputs; thus ________ combines rationalism and empiricism.
observation sentences, logical positivism
The ________ of Carnap and Carl Hempel attempted to analyze the acquisition of knowledge from experience.
Carnap’s book _________ deﬁned an explicit computational procedure for extracting knowledge from elementary experiences. It was probably the ﬁrst theory of mind as a computational process.
The Logical Structure of the World
The ﬁnal element in the philosophical picture of the mind is the connection between ________ and _________.
knowledge and action
Argued (in DeMotu Animalium) that actions are justiﬁed by a logical connection between goals and knowledge of the action’s outcome
Aristotle’s algorithm was implemented 2300 years later by Newell and Simon in their GPS program. We would now call it a ___________
regression planning system
________ is useful, but does not say what to do when several actions will achieve the goal or when no action will achieve it completely.
John Stuart Mill’s book __________ promoted the idea of rational decision criteria in all spheres of human activity.
Worked out the details of propositional, or Boolean, logic.
Extended Boole’s logic to include objects and relations, creating the ﬁrst order logic that is used today.
Introduced a theory of reference that shows how to relate the objects in a logic to objects in the real world.
The ﬁrst nontrivial algorithm is thought to be _______ algorithm for computing greatest common divisors.
The word algorithm (and the idea of studying them) comes from __________, a Persian mathematician of the 9th century, whose writings also introduced Arabic numerals and algebra to Europe.
Kurt Godel's _________ showed that in any formal theory as strong as Peano arithmetic (the elementary theory of natural numbers), there are true statements that are undecidable in the sense that they have no proof within the theory.
Characterized exactly which functions are computable or capable of being computed
Although decidability and computability are important to an understanding of computation, the notion of _________ has had an even greater impact.
A problem is called __________ if the time required to solve instances of the problem grows exponentially with the size of the instances
The theory of NP-completeness, pioneered by ______ and ______, showed the existence of large classes of canonical combinatorial search and reasoning problems that are NP-complete. Any problem class to which the class of NP-complete problems can be reduced is likely to be intractable.
Steven Cook, Richard Karp
Besides logic and computation, the third great contribution of mathematics to AI is the theory of _________.
First framed the idea of probability, describing it in terms of the possible outcomes of gambling events.
________ rule underlies most modern approaches to uncertain reasoning in AI systems.
Published "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations", first to treat economics as a science, using the idea that economies can be thought of as consisting of individual agents maximizing their own economic well-being.
The mathematical treatment of “preferred outcomes” or ______ was ﬁrst formalized by Leon Walras
Combined probability theory with utility theory, provides a formal and complete framework for decisions made under uncertainty.
___________'s development of game theory included the surprising result that, for some games, a rational agent should adopt policies that are randomized.
John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern
Pursued in the ﬁeld of ________, which emerged in World War II from efforts in Britain to optimize radar installations, and later found civilian applications in complex management decisions.
The work of _________ formalized a class of sequential decision problems called Markov decision processes.
The pioneering AI researcher ________ won the Nobel Prize in economics in 1978 for his early work showing that models based on ________—making decisions that are “good enough,
Herbert Simon, satisﬁcing
_________ is the study of the nervous system, particularly the brain.
_______ wrote, “Of all the animals, man has the largest brain in proportion to his size.
_________’s study of aphasia (speech deﬁcit) in brain-damaged patients demonstrated the existence of localized areas of the brain responsible for speciﬁc cognitive functions.
The brain consisted of nerve cells, or neurons, but _________ developed a staining technique allowing the observation of individual neurons in the brain
First to apply mathematical models to the study of the nervous system.
The measurement of intact brain activity began in 1929 with the invention by ________ of the electroencephalograph (EEG).
The recent development of _______ is giving neuroscientists unprecedentedly detailed images of brain activity, enabling measurements that correspond in interesting ways to ongoing cognitive processes.
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
A collection of simple cells can lead to thought, action, and consciousness or, in the pithy words of ________, brains cause minds
The only real alternative theory is _________: that minds operate in some mystical realm that is beyond physical science.
Futurists make much of the brain numbers, pointing to an approaching ______ at which computers reach a superhuman level of performance, but the raw comparisons are not especially informative.
Applied the scientiﬁc method to the study of human vision, and his Handbook of Physiological Optics is even now described as “the single most important treatise on the physics and physiology of human vision”
Hermann von Helmholtz
The behaviorism movement, led by ________, rejected any theory involving mental processes on the grounds. They insisted on studying only objective measures of the percepts (or stimulus) given to an animal and its resulting actions (or response).
__________, which views the brain as an information-processing device, can be traced back at least to the works of William James.
The Nature of Explanation, by ________ forcefully reestablished the legitimacy of such “mental” terms as beliefs and goals, arguing that they are just as scientiﬁc as, say, using pressure and temperature to talk about gases, despite their being made of molecules that have neither.
Craik speciﬁed the three key steps of a knowledge-based agent:
the stimulus must be translated into an internal representation
the representation is manipulated by cognitive processes to derive new internal representations
these are in turn retranslated back into action
For artiﬁcial intelligence to succeed, we need two things:
The ﬁrst operational computer was the _____________, built in 1940 by Alan Turing’s team for a single purpose: deciphering German messages.
electromechanical Heath Robinson
Alan Turing’s team developed the ________, a powerful general-purpose machine based on vacuum tubes.
The ﬁrst operational programmable computer was the Z-3, the invention of ______ in Germany in 1941. He also invented ﬂoating-point numbers and the ﬁrst high-level programming language, Plankalkul.
The ﬁrst electronic computer, the ABC, was assembled by ________
John Atanasoff & Clifford Berry
It was the ______, developed as part of a secret military project by a team including John Mauchly and John Eckert, that proved to be the most inﬂuential forerunner of modern computers.
The ﬁrst programmable machine was a loom, by ________, that used punched cards to store instructions for the pattern to be woven.
Joseph Marie Jacquard
Designed two machines, neither of which he completed: The Difference Engine and Analytical Engine
The world’s ﬁrst programmer and wrote programs for the unﬁnished Analytical Engine and even speculated that the machine could play chess or compose music.
Built the ﬁrst self-controlling machine: a water clock with a regulator that maintained a constant ﬂow rate.
Ktesibios of Alexandria
The steam engine governor, created by _______ and the thermostat, invented by __________, who also invented the submarine are self-regulating feedback control systems.
James Watt, Cornelis Drebbel
The central ﬁgure in the creation of what is now called control theory was ______, developed an interest in biological and mechanical control systems and their connection to cognition
Norbert Wiener, Arturo Rosenblueth and Julian Bigelow challenged the _________. They viewed purposive behavior as arising from a regulatory mechanism trying to minimize “error”—the difference between current state and goal state
Wiener’s book _________became a bestseller and awoke the public to the possibility of artiﬁcially intelligent machines.
W. Ros Ashby’s Design for a Brain elaborated on his idea that intelligence could be created by the use of ________ devices containing appropriate feedback loops to achieve stable adaptive behavior.
_________, especially the branch known as ___________, has as its goal the design of systems that maximize an objective function overtime.
Modern control theory, stochastic optimal control
B. F. Skinner published _________, a comprehensive, detailed account of the behaviorist approach to language learning, written by the foremost expert in the ﬁeld.
Published the book Syntactic Structures, pointed out that the behaviorist theory did not address the notion of creativity in language—it did not explain how a child could understand and make up sentences that he or she had never heard before.
Modern linguistics and AI, then, were “born” at about the same time, and grew up together, intersecting in a hybrid ﬁeld called _________ or ___________.
computational linguistics or natural language processing
The ﬁrst work that is now generally recognized as AI was done by ________ and ________
Warren McCulloch, Walter Pitts
McCulloch and Pitss drew on three sources for AI:
knowledge of the basic physiology and function of neurons in the brain
a formal analysis of propositional logic due to Russell and Whitehead
Turing’s theory of computation
Demonstrated a simple updating rule for modifying the connection strengths between neurons. His rule, now called Hebbian learning.
________ and _________, built the ﬁrst neural network computer, SNARC, used 3000 vacuum tubes and a surplus automatic pilot mechanism from a B-24 bomber to simulate a network of 40 neurons.
Marvin Minsky, Dean Edmonds
He proposed the Child Programme idea, which is the stimulation of a child's mind.
He moved to Stanford from Princeton and then to Dartmouth College, which was to become the ofﬁcial birthplace of the ﬁeld.
Convinced Minsky, Claude Shannon, and Nathaniel Rochester to help him bring together U.S. researchers interested in automata theory, neural nets, and the study of intelligence.
Stole Minsky and the group's show, because they already had a reasoning program, the Logic Theorist (LT)
Allen Newell and Herbert Simon
Why isn’t AI a branch of mathematics?
AI embraced the idea of duplicating human faculties
Methodology (a branch of computer science and attempted to build machines that will function autonomously)
The ﬁrst program to embody the “thinking humanly” approach.
GPS (General Problem Solver)
Newell and Simon formulated the famous ___________ hypothesis, which states that “a __________ has the necessary and sufﬁcient means for general intelligent action.
physical symbol system
Constructed the Geometry Theorem Prover, which was able to prove theorems that many students of mathematics would ﬁnd quite tricky.
Wrote a series of programs for checkers (draughts) that eventually learned to play at a strong amateur level.
Deﬁned the high-level language Lisp, which was to become the dominant AI programming language and invented time sharing
McCarthy's program was designed to accept new axioms in the normal course of operation, thereby allowing it to achieve competence in new areas ____________.
without being reprogrammed
McCarthy stressed representation and reasoning in ________, whereas Minsky was more interested in getting programs to work and eventually developed an ________.
formal logic, anti-logic outlook
A complete theorem-proving algorithm for ﬁrst-order logic, McCarthy's plan.
First to demonstrate the complete integration of logical reasoning and physical activity.
Shakey robotics project
Minsky supervised a series of students who chose limited problems that appeared to require intelligence to solve. These limited domains became known as _________.
The most famous microworld was the __________, which consists of a set of solid blocks placed on a tabletop.
Called his networks adalines
Hebb’s learning methods were enhanced by Frank Rosenblatt with his __________.
Says that the learning algorithm can adjust the connection strengths of a perceptron to match any input data, provided such a match exists.
perceptron convergence theorem
(T/F) The fact that a program can ﬁnd a solution in principle does not mean that the program contains any of the mechanisms needed to ﬁnd it in practice.
Based on the undoubtedly correct belief that by making an appropriate series of small mutations to a machine-code program, one can generate a program with good performance for any particular task.
machine evolution or genetic algorithms
Failure to come to grips with the __________ was one of the main criticisms of AI .
The picture of problem solving that had arisen during the ﬁrst decade of AI research was of a general-purpose search mechanism trying to string together elementary reasoning steps to ﬁnd complete solutions called ___________
The alternative to weak methods is to use more powerful, ___________ that allows larger reasoning steps and can more easily handle typically occurring cases in narrow areas of expertise.
The ________ program made by Ed Feigenbaum, Bruce Buchanan, and Joshua Lederberg to solve the problem of inferring molecular structure from the information provided by a mass spectrometer.
The signiﬁcance of DENDRAL was that it was the ﬁrst successful __________
Feigenbaum, Buchanan, and Dr. Edward Shortliffe developed _______ to diagnose blood infections, an expert system.
Two major differences of MYCIN from DENDRAL system:
no general theoretical model existed, and are acquired only from extensive interviewing of experts
rules had to reﬂect the uncertainty associated with medical knowledge
MYCIN incorporated a calculus of uncertainty called ________, which seemed to ﬁt well with how doctors assessed the impact of evidence on the diagnosis
Minsky’s idea of ______, adopted a more structured approach, assembling facts about particular object and event types and arranging the types into a large taxonomic hierarchy analogous to a biological taxonomy.
The ﬁrst successful commercial expert system, _____, began operation at the Digital Equipment Corporation which helped conﬁgure orders for new computer systems.
The Japanese announced the __________ project, a 10-year plan to build intelligent computers running Prolog
The United States formed the __________ as a research consortium designed to assure national competitiveness.
Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC)
Came a period called the ________in which many companies fell by the wayside as they failed to deliver on extravagant promises.
Algorithm applied to many learning problems in computer science and psychology, and the widespread dissemination of the results in the collection Parallel Distributed Processing.
back-propagation learning algorithm
These models of intelligent systems is the deﬁning characteristic of humans.
A rigorous mathematical theory that allowed speech researchers to build on several decades of mathematical results developed in other ﬁelds and are generated by a process of training on a large corpus of real speech data.
Hidden Markov models
Those who think that AI theories should be grounded in mathematical rigor
Those who would rather try out lots of ideas, write some programs, and then assess what seems to be working.
As a result of improved methodology and theoretical frameworks in statistics, pattern recognition, and machine learning, ________ technology has spawned.
The __________ formalism was invented to allow efﬁcient representation of, and rigorous reasoning with, uncertain knowledge.
Systems that act rationally according to the laws of decision theory and do not try to imitate the thought steps of human experts.
normative expert systems
The work of Allen Newell, John Laird, and Paul Rosenbloom on _______ is the best-known example of a complete agent architecture.
One of the most important environments for intelligent agents is the _________
Machines that think, that learn and that create and called the effort _________
Universal algorithm for learning and acting in any environment, by Ray Solomonoff
Artiﬁcial General Intelligence
Throughout the 60-year history of computer science, the emphasis has been on the _________ as the main subject of study. But some recent work in AI suggests that for many problems, it makes more sense to worry about the _______ and be less picky about what algorithm to apply.
What can AI do today?
Autonomous planning and scheduling
A Volkswagen Touareg outﬁtted with cameras, radar, and laser rangeﬁnders to sense the environment and onboard software to command the steering, braking, and acceleration
NASA’s _________ program became the ﬁrst on-board autonomous planning program to control the scheduling of operations for a spacecraft.
IBM’s _______ became the ﬁrst computer program to defeat the world champion in a chess match when it bested Garry Kasparov by a score of 3.5 to 2.5 in an exhibition match.
U.S. forces deployed a ___________, to do automated logistics planning and scheduling for transportation.