Define the term "Management"
Management denotes the process of directing and controlling people and things so that organizational objectives can be accomplished.
Distinguish between "management" and "supervision"
- Management is focused on accomplishing organizational objectives. Supervision, as it relates to the process of management, is responsible for ensuring that the organization's people are doing the work that furthers the organization's objectives. Supervisors are directly involved in the operational aspects of the organization through:
- -Influencing subordinates
- -Coordinating the efforts of subordinates
- -Directing subordinates in such a way that obedience, confidence, respect, and loyal cooperation is obtained.
Discuss the types of institutional knowledge a supervisor must possess.
The supervisor prepares himself for his new role by gaining knowledge and understanding of the policies, rules, procedures, functions, and objectives of the organization. A supervisor does not need to be highly skilled in every technical aspect of the job they supervise to be effective--they should, however, have a good working knowledge of the principle aspects of the job for which they are responsible.
A supervisors basic responsibilities include being a:
- 1) Planner - Must be able to plan operational activities, inspect work systems, conduct studies, analyze data, develop constructive change in the organization.
- 2) Trainer - Have the ability to train subordinates to be effective and efficient ensuring the organizations standards are maintained.
- 3) Controller - Knowing how to control subordinates. Ensuring rules and regulations are followed and provide for the administration of discipline, when needed, or remedial training.
- 4) Decision Maker and Communicator - A supervisor is always ready and willing to make decisions that support the organization. When a decision will impact subordinates, it must be communicated clearly and simple. The manner in which a supervisor communicates his desires / order is also critical. Professional communication is key.
List the various elements of the chief executive's activities as described by Gulick, and discuss how each applies to the first line supervisor:
- Acronym: POSDCORB
- P - Planning: Determine in broad detail what needs to be accomplished and working out details of how goal/mission will be accomplished.
- O - Organizing: Establishing the formal structure of authority for the organization.
- S - Staffing: The personnel function of bringing in and training the staff to accomplish their job at peak efficiency.
- D - Directing: The continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific general orders and instructions.
- C - Coordinating: The action between all organizations / the coordination of effort.
- R - Reporting: Keeping upper management informed of the ongoing progress, as well as keeping subordinates informed.
- B - Budgeting: All things related to financial issues.
What is meant by the word "organization"?
An organization is a structure through which people work as a group.
How may a supervisor best utilize the talents of the natural leaders in the organization even though they are not officially designated as such?
The supervisor achieves the best use of the talents of his people through the practice of delegation.
What are the four main bases for dividing work in police services?
- 1) The function performed (patrol, investigations).
- 2) The area where the work is performed (beats / sectors).
- 3) The purpose of the work (operations, administration).
- 4) The clientele handled (juveniles, gang members).
What is the principle of specialization?
Refers to limiting the number and type of tasks a subordinate is assigned in order to improve work quality and facilitate improved production capacity.
What is the law of productivity?
Requires assigning the fewest possible kinds of tasks or operations to each worker to improve the quality and increase the quantity of the work accomplished.
Define unity of command.
Every employee should be under the direct command of only one supervisor (in normal operations). At times, a joint response (natural disaster, crisis w/ multiple agencies) may prevent unity of command which the entities should strive for unity of effort.
What is meant by span of control?
Refers to the number of individuals one individual can supervise effectively. At the top level of an organization, span of control is small (3-5), and broadens at the lower levels (depending on supervisor, type of work, complexity, etc).
What are some factors that effect span of control?
The capacity of the supervisor, the type / complexity of the work, area covered, distance between elements, time needed to perform tasks, homogeneity of operation, types of persons served, and effectiveness of managers.
Why cannot ultimate responsibility be delegated?
Ultimate responsibility always rests with the person who is in charge. While authority to accomplish a given task can be delegated, the ultimate responsibility for the successful completion of that task rests with the supervisor who has delegated.
Discuss the benefits the supervisor can derive from proper delegation.
It frees the supervisor from many routine tasks and enables the supervisor to devote more time to broader planning activities. It also provides the employee to whom the responsibility is delegated an opportunity to increase their job knowledge.
What is the exception principle?
The head of an organization or unit within it should not find it necessary to act personally on each matter coming under his jurisdiction.
Define the essential nature of completed staff work.
It requires that the person to whom the work has been assigned through the delegation process complete it so that the only thing left to be done by the person who delegated it is to approve it.
How do delegation, the exception principle, and the principle of completed staff work interrelate?
All three concepts involve the supervisor extending professional trust and reliance on his subordinates to assist in accomplishing designated goals. All three concepts rely on the effective employment of delegating authority to ones subordinates.
Why do supervisors often resist leadership training?
It is usually the result of the inability of some supervisors to adopt and apply the principles of leadership to their own particular assignment. They perform their tasks in traditional stereotyped fashion.
List the three types of leaders and discuss their characteristics.
- 1) Autocratic (authoritative) - Makes decisions without subordinate input, rules through fear and intimidation, and primarily leader-centered.
- 2) Democratic (participatory) - Seeks ideas / suggestions from subordinates, uses little direct authority, works well when circumstances permit employee participation in the decision making process.
- 3) Free Rein (laissez-faire) - hands off, exercises minimum control, seldom gives subordinates attention or the help they might need, produces a climate of permissiveness among subordinates.
Define command presence.
It is the natural manner of an individual indicating a complete command of his mental and physical faculties and emotions. Command presence affects how others perceive the leader in terms of his calmness and control in increasingly stressful situations.
Discuss the principle characteristics of good leaders.
- 1) Discipline- Creates an environment high in espirit de corps and moral.
- 2) Ethics - Consistent standards of behavior and a clear moral code.
- 3) Common Sense - The use of good judgement.
- 4) Psychology - Understanding human behavior and the factors that can affect how people respond in different situations.
What are the objectives of good human relations?
Is the greatest production in the shortest possible time with the minimum energy and the maximum satisfaction of the producers.
What are the basic principles of commending and criticizing others?
Criticize in a private (one-on-one) setting.
Commending should be done publicly.
What are the most prevalent reasons for failures in order giving? (5)
- 1) Using indistinct speech or poor word selection.
- 2) Giving orders in a haphazard / disorganized manner.
- 3) Giving too many orders at once.
- 4) Too much detail.
- 5) Failure to follow up on orders given.
List / Discuss four methods for giving orders.
- 1) Direct commands - used when emergent conditions require direct / prompt action.
- 2) Requests - Most orders should be framed as requests (best way to obtain cooperation).
- 3) Implied / suggested orders - Used to help develop the initiative of subordinates because they allow considerable latitude in how they are carried out.
- 4) Request for volunteers - Used sparingly when a dangerous or disagreeable task is needed to be accomplished and the supervisor should not do the task himself (used sparingly. not for the purpose of shedding supervisor responsibility).
Discuss the steps (6) involved in decision making.
- 1) Awareness a problem exists.
- 2) Obtain facts about the problem.
- 3) Evaluate the facts and information collected about the problem.
- 4) Develop alternative approaches to solving the problem (develop more than one course of action).
- 5) Select the course of action.
- 6) Communicate the decision to your subordinates.
Discuss how over-supervision occurs and the hazards that result from it.
When the leader fails to delegate tasks due to a lack of confidence in his subordinates or an unwillingness to relinquish supervisory perogatives. This destroys initiative and negatively impacts morale. Subordinates ultimately lose respect for the supervisor who over-supervises.
Explain how the supervision of women and minority employees sometimes differ from that of white male workers.
Supervisors must make decisions that impact female and minority subordinates based on fairness and mission requirements. These are the same principles of fairness that apply to all employees.
List and discuss some of the basic techniques of supervising women employees.
- 1) Women are legally and morally entitled to the same opportunities as their male counterparts.
- 2) Women should explore the opportunities available to them within their department.
- 3) Supervisors should encourage membership in voluntary professional organizations (ie International Association of Women Police)
- 4) Exercise exceptional common sense and introspection with employees of the opposite sex.
What are some positive motivators? Describe how they can be used.
- 1) Providing appropriate recognition and praise.
- 2) Providing opportunities for professional development.
- 3) Challenging work.
- 4) Fair treatment.
What are the major symptoms of leadership failure?
- 1) Selfishness.
- 2) Suspicion.
- 3) Envy.
- 4) Failing to give credit.
- 5) Hypercriticism and arbitrariness.
What are the situational leadership readiness styles?
- 1) Readiness style 1 - Worker is unable and unwilling to try the job. Telling, which is high in task behavior but low in relationship behavior.
- 2) Readiness style 2 - Worker is unable but are willing or confident to do the job. Selling, which is high in task behavior and high in relationship behavior.
- 3) Readiness style 3 - Worker is very capable but unwilling or insecure to do job. Participating, which is low in task behavior but high in relationship behavior.
- 4) Readiness style 4 - Worker is very capable and very willing. Delegating, which is low in task and low in relationship behavior.
What are some of the effects of training deficiencies?
- 1) Low morale.
- 2) Waste.
- 3) Poor field performance.
- 4) Unnecessary liability in the form of potential civil claims.
How might traditions, customs, and habits affect the teachers approach to training?
The methods the instructor uses may be new or different for the students and this can result in resistance (ie different style of shooting). He will often be forced to improvise so that his methods will meet the needs of the moment. The instructional methods used by the instructor must match his audience. The instructor must have a well established knowledge base, good teaching skills, and enthusiasm for the material.
How can an administrator or supervisor determine the effects of training?
- 1) Higher morale.
- 2) Less job stress.
- 3) Greater espirit de corps.
- 4) Lessened need for punitive discipline.
- 5) Greater effectiveness in crime suppression.
- 6) Increased public support / confidence.
- 7) Fewer errors.
- 8) Better decision making.
Define the principle of readiness and give an example of how it may be applied in the learning process.
Is focused on the environment in which learning takes place. It is the instructors responsibility to create an environments that is conductive to learning.
Example - Classroom w/ proper environmental controls, adequate room size, and equipment that supports the instruction being provided.
Define the principle of effect and give an example of how it may be applied to the learning process.
When the students learning environment is positive and structured to meet the needs of the training being conducted, efficient / effective learning is possible. When the positive learning experience occurs, the student receives a sense of satisfaction that is pleasurable and that he will want to learn.
Example- Providing students with scenarios that provide them with realistic training that has an immediate impact of the tactics being taught.
Define the principle of repetition and give an example of how it may be applied to the learning process.
When experiences are pleasing there is a natural desire to repeat the experience. Repetition builds good form, habits, and skills that are both useful and effective.
Example- Teaching officers how to properly reload a firearm in simulated combat conditions.
How are the principles of readiness, effect, and repetition interdependent?
Properly applied, the principles build on each other to create conditions for learning to occur.
When a students learning environment is conductive to the receiving / retaining of information being taught (readiness) it is much more likely that he will experience the positive experience from learning a new procedure, skill, or process (effect). When readiness and effect are attained in the learning environment, the student is more likely to be willing to practice (repetition) those recently attained skills.
What are some factors that affect the learning rate of students? (6)
- 1) The students apperceptive base (previous learning / real life experiences).
- 2) Personality of the instructor.
- 3) Individual personalities of the students (both physical and mental characteristics).
- 4) Class size.
- 5) Training environment.
- 6) Time available for training.
What is meant by motivation? How can a teacher bring this condition about?
Motivation - is the students desire to learn and the effort he is willing to put forth to obtain the knowledge the instructor is presenting.
The instructor influences a students motivation through the use of incentives (grades / competition) and the positive use of stimulation (thought provoking, relevant, realistic training).
What are teaching objectives?
The instructional goals that are to be accompanied by a single presentation or a series of lessons through which a positive change in the learners behavior or performance is achieved.
What two types of teaching objectives should a teacher prepare in readying himself to teach?
- 1) General objectives - The overall goal of the instruction being presented to the learner.
- 2) Specific objectives - the goal(s) of each segment of the lesson being presented.
What factors should an instructor take into consideration in analyzing his teaching material before presenting it?
The instructor should evaluate the task to be accomplished and the operations (steps) the learner must accomplish in order to successfully complete the desired task.
What is a lesson plan and how may it be used?
The lesson plan is the sequence that the instructor will follow to present the desired information in a logical sequence to students.
What should a lesson plan contain?
- 1) A listing of steps needed to accomplish the task or comprehend the information being taught.
- 2) The important tips and information (knacks, tricks of trade, etc) that help to improve understanding of the material being presented.
- 3) Practical examples.
What form should a lesson plan follow?
The lesson plan should follow the five step plan of teaching. It can take the form of a topic outline, a sentence outline, a narrative with key teaching points marked, or marginal references keyed to the main teaching points.
Why is learning by association important to the student?
Because it allows the students to associate the new information being presented with information and skills that he already knows.
List the five steps of teaching discussed in this chapter and explain what each step should accomplish.
- 1) Introduction - Focuses the attention of the student on the subject being taught (gains students attention).
- 2) Presentation - Imparts new knowledge or skills to student.
- 3) Review - Provides the student with a summary of the instruction presented / ties all of the information together.
- 4) Application - The student provided an opportunity to try out the new skills just learned under the instructors supervision.
- 5) Test - Provides a means to evaluate the students progress.
What are some ways of stimulating attention and securing the interest of the learner?
- 1) Ask leading questions.
- 2) Directing rhetorical questions to the students.
- 3) Making use of suggestions, illustrations, and demonstrations.
- 4) Relating personal or other practical examples.
- 5) Placing emphasis on present or future needs that the learner may satisfy by the information.
- 6) Citing group or individual differences.
- 7) Discussing why it is imperative to learn how to perform the job correctly.
- 8) Indicating how increased proficiency may benefit the learner personally or economically.
What are the advantages of the individual approach to teaching over the group approach in each of the five steps of instruction?
- 1) Introduction - More personal, informal, and can be given at any place / time.
- 2) Presentation - The instructor can make allowances for individual differences by speeding up or slowing down the presentation.
- 3) Review - No advantages given.
- 4) Application - The instructor can more closely supervise the individual than in a group and answer questions more readily.
- 5) Test - No advantages given.
What are the advantages of the group approach over the individual approach in each of the five steps?
- 1) Introduction - No advantages given.
- 2) Presentation - Allows the instructor to get his information out to the most people at one time.
- 3) Review - No advantages given.
- 4) Application - No advantages given.
- 5) Test - No advantages given.
What steps control the learning process most?
Presentation - Because it will either engage or fail to engage the students attention. If the student is not interested in the presentation because it is boring / mediocre, learning will not occur.
Application & Test are also important because they will reveal if the student has actually grasped the information to a level that reflects a baseline of proficiency.
List the most common causes of teaching ineffectiveness.
- 1) Oversimplification - Leaving to the student the task of drawing a conclusion without adequate facts.
- 2) Aimlessness - Results from a failure to plan and organize teaching material properly.
- 3) Assuming the learner knows more about the subject than he does -Often causes instructors to leave out points that are essential, to gloss over them without emphasis, or fail to define unusual terms.
- 4) Failure on the part of the supervisor to prepare himself for training roll.
List the various types of teaching methods.
- 1) Lecture - Often least effective because it assumes the class learns at the same rate. Better in extremely short sessions.
- 2) Guest Speakers- Utilized for training in area of expertise.
- 3) Role Playing / Field Problems - Such problems must be carefully developed / orchestrated so that maximum practical, real life effects can be realized.
- 4) Stress Management Simulations - Will provide them with opportunity to gain mastery over emotional / physical responses in real life scenario.
- 5) Workshops - Talk, listen, compare experiences with others under the guidance of experienced personnel.
- 6) Demonstrations - With actual equipment / implements are used to supplement other teaching techniques.
- 7) Group Discussions - May be a great value in reviving lagging interest, fostering participation, and refocusing attention on subject. Instructor may often accomplish this by stimulating discussion amongst students.
- 8) Panel Discussions - Can be used productively especially at or near the end of training sessions for experienced officers.
- 9) Conferences - Especially productive in the operational level in police work.
Name three types of questions and explain how they can be used in teaching situations.
- 1) Overhead Question - Allow the instructor to ask a question that is directed to the entire group.
- 2) Relay Question - Student asks a question, instructor relays the question to another student.
- 3) Reverse Question - Student asks a question, instructor asks same student the same question from his own base on knowledge and perspective.
Name the types of teaching aids (6).
- 1) Display aids - Whiteboard / chart. Should be clear and easy to read from back row.
- 2) Duplicated aids -Instruction sheets, charts, etc. Should not be made available to the student as substitute for study.
- 3) Projected aids - Powerpoint, overhead projection, etc. Must not rely on them as a crutch.
- 4) Three Dimensional aids - Cutaway, mock-up, table models, etc. Extremely helpful in police tactics / field operations.
- 5) Electronic Media Devices - Driving / firearm simulators, etc. Expensive. Allows officers to learn from their mistakes and improve judgement without injuries or lawsuits.
- 6) Field Trips - Carefully planned to accomplish a specific objective. Should not become purely recreational.
Describe what takes place in the process of active listening.
Involves listening to what the other person is saying, how they are saying it, verify that you understand what it is that you are hearing them say, and developing empathy for their point of view.
How do status differences affect communication.
Greater the difference in status between the parties the more difficult effective communication will be (ie. Chief having a conversation with new officer about an obscure administration policy).
What is meant by psychological size?
Recognizition of the appearance or perception of superiority or inferiority of the person with who you are communicating. The perception that a superior is overtly displaying his psychological size (dominance) in a communications setting can adversely impact the supervisor / subordinate relationship and inhibit effective communication.
What is noise in communication?
The static that interferes with the transmission of messages is called noise. Such static tends to create redundancy and repetition.
Why does the fear of criticism often have a harmful affect on communication?
It has a deadening effect on communication. Those who must communicate with someone who is prone to issuing criticism will avoid communications with such persons as much as possible.
What is meant by filtering and how does it affect the process of communication?
Filtering is the distortion or dilution of information as it is passed from individual to individual. This results in the tendency of individuals to repeat the part of what they have heard that has had the most impact on them.
What are the barriers to effective communication and how can they be overcome? (7)
- 1) Determining the objectives before initiating communication.
- 2) Practicing empathy.
- 3) Obtain feedback from the person you are communicating with.
- 4) Keep subordinates informed.
- 5) Be consistent in communications.
- 6) Make actions speak louder than words.
- 7) Listen, understand, and be understood.
List the three broad categories of communication and advantage / disadvantage for each.
- 1) Autocratic - Advantage:Speed Disadvantage:Arbitrariness (one person makes decision)
- 2) Democratic - Advantage: Ease of understanding and permits sharing of ideas. Disadvantage: Lack of speed.
- 3) Free Rein - Advantage: It provides for minimum contact. Disadvantage: Leadership is often absent, mistakes can flourish.
List the five types of communicators and explain how their peculiarities affect their communication.
- 1) Non-communicator: Says no more than he thinks the situation requires.
- 2) Logical Speaker: Troubled by anxiety or compulsiveness.
- 3) Under-Talker: Fails to communicate when communicating is indicated.
- 4) Tiresome Over-Talker: Does not know when to stop talking.
- 5) Helpless Speaker: Full of self-pitty and apology.
- 6) Tangential Speaker: Fails to give a direct response and responds to irrelevant side issues.
What are the main parts of a written report? What should be included in each part?
- 1) Heading - Indicates the title or subject.
- 2) Body - Presents the maid ideas / findings.
- 3) Closing - Incorporates the conclusions, recommendations, and plan of action.
What is a brief? What are the requisites of briefing?
- The important ideas and points of a main paper presented in an abbreviated format typically generated for review by a superior.
- A brief must preserve the original meaning of the full report.
What are the main deficiencies in most written communications?
- 1) Writers lack of ability or care in discriminating between fact and non-fact.
- 2) Causes confusion misinterpreting the data.
- 3) Fails to use the most concrete word to make meaning of what is written clear.
- 4) Fails to support his conclusion by factual data.
What is the difference between an interrogation and an interview?
Interrogation involves the interrogator assuming a dominant role, through the use of questioning and observation of the suspect.
Interviewing is an exchange of views and ideas between the person being interviewed. The primary purpose of the interview is to obtain or impart information or influence attitudes or behaviors.
What are the major functions of an interview?
To obtain information, to communicate or give information, to motivate employees for the purpose of improving cooperation (production, etc), or to help solve some type of problem.
List the types of interviews and briefly discuss the characteristics of each. (7)
- 1) Informal Interview - Planned or unplanned one on one interactions with subordinates (inspection, ride alongs, briefings).
- 2) Employment Interview - Appraising the applicants qualifications for employment.
- 3) Progress Interview - Used to inform the employee of his progress, review past performance, and provide guidance for improvement.
- 4) Grievance Interview - An interview in response to an employees allegation that he has experienced mistreatment related to a policy or MOU.
- 5) Problem Solving Interview - An interview in which the supervisor is being asked by a subordinate to help solve a particular problem.
- 6) Disciplinary Action Interview - An interview in which an employee who has been the subject of discipline is advised of the findings, conclusions, recommendations, and any penalty being handed out.
- 7) Separation Interview - An interview with an employee that is leaving an agency. This type of interview is important because of the potential negative ramifications it can have on the department, if done incorrectly.
What is meant by the principle that interviews should be employee-centered?
The employee is the focus of the interview and his responses should be carefully considered throughout the interview process. The interviewer takes on the role of understanding the listener (active listening) instead of overtly controlling all aspects of the interview process.
Discuss the active listening technique.
Active listening is the skill of listening to not only the words being spoken, but the meaning of those words in the context of the conversation. It requires the interviewer to strive to develop empathy with the interviewee, which should encourage more meaningful responses.
How might questions be used in the interview process?
Questions are best used to start the conversation and for getting into the subject being discussed. The best questions are open ended questions that prompt the interviewee to provide more detailed responses.
How should the interviewer generally handle an offer to give information under a confidential agreement?
The supervisor must carefully weigh the circumstances and the information being revealed (or potentially being revealed) before committing to any personal agreement of confidentiality.
What is meant by the term "unconscious imitation" and how might it affect an interview?
Unconscious imitation occurs when the mood / atmosphere of the interview influences the interviewer in such a way that he imitates / adopts a mood of behaviors that are consistent with the social environment of the interview. Unconscious imitation can affect the judgement of the interviewer.
What are the most prevalent causes of interview failures? (6)
- 1) A failure to communicate what is meant or to understand what is said.
- 2) Ignorance.
- 3) Faulty recollection.
- 4) Tendency to say what one thinks he is expected to say.
- 5) Failure to prepare for interview.
- 6) Misinterpretation of the facts based on subjective impressions.
Why should an interviewer ordinarily refrain from giving advice to the interviewee?
Giving advice can often result in the advice-seeking employee relying on the supervisor's guidance as a crutch. As a result, the employee may avoid or resist solving the problem on his own.
What are some of the broad steps a supervisor must take in preparing for an interview?
- 1) Plan the interview so that it isn't hurried.
- 2) Gather information about the interview subject beforehand.
- 3) Prepare a written outline of the pending interview.
- 4) Anticipate potential follow-up interview(s).
Distinguish among drives, satisfactions, and needs.
- Drives - Are desires that all humans have for meeting certain needs (security, friendship, etc).
- Satisfactions - Are the fundamental conditions that a person strives to achieve in his life (affections, acceptance, etc).
- Needs - Are the social and psychological conditions that a person must have in order to be balanced and have a sense of fulfillment.
Define catharsis and explain a simple method by which a supervisor might use it with a subordinate.
Catharsis is the process of talking about a problem in such a way that it leads to discovering the problem's source and how to correct it. A supervisor could use this concept as a model for helping employees recognize the problems they are experiencing and figuring out what they need to do to correct them.
What are some of the reactions that might result from frustration? (6)
- 1) Aggression
- 2) Attitude of resignation.
- 3) Escape.
- 4) Excuses and rationalization.
- 5) Regression.
- 6) Fixations.
What are some of the overt manifestations of frustration? How many frustrations can be covertly expressed?
Overt Manifestations - Anger. Hostility.
Covert Expressions - Work slowdowns. Waste. Absenteeism.
What is the most obvious means of preventing frustration?
To discover and remove the underlying cause of the frustration.
Why is problem drinking so important to law enforcement?
Because one in four officers may have a problem with alcohol and police work is conductive to problem drinking.
What is the primary cause of problem drinking?
There is insufficient evidence that alcoholism can be attributed to personality predispositions. It must therefore be assumed that any predisposition must be associated with other influences, which tend to press one towards alcoholism before addiction occurs.
What are the three stages of problem drinking?
- 1) Early stage - Memory blackout, frequent hangover, absenteeism.
- 2) Middle / Intermediate Stage - Work performance deteriorates, lies / denies drinking,
- 3) Late / Acute Stage - Physical deterioration, he is so afflicted he has become physically / psychologically dependent on alcohol.
What are the defense mechanisms the alcoholic will often use? (3)
- 1) Denial- Denies using alcohol, or that he can take it or leave it.
- 2) Rationalization - Denies that a problem exists.
- 3) Projection - Blaming the problem on someone or something else.
Why is listening so important in counseling?
Active listening helps the interviewer build a rapport with the interviewee. Listening helps the interviewer see the problem from the interviewees perspective.
What is non-directive counseling?
Non-directive counseling is employee centered. It is a counseling technique that facilitates the problem employee is given an opportunity to discover his own problem and develop a solution for correcting it.
What is involved in the process of reflection?
Reflecting (on the part of the problem employee) helps the employee better communicate his issues / problems and will help the problem employee clarify exactly what the problems are--ultimately moving towards a real solution to fixing those problems.
Why is it necessary that the counselor avoid giving the problem drinker advice as part of the counseling procedure?
Employee-centered counseling's goal is for the supervisor to guide the employee into gaining insight into his own problem and developing a solution to correct it. Giving advice interrupts this process.
What are the main uses of questions in counseling? (3)
- 1) Questions encourage the subject to talk.
- 2) Questions are used to obtain information.
- 3) Questions are used to lead conversation to more pertinent matters.
Why is it important that the problem drinkers ego be preserved as a technique of counseling?
Because the employee cannot be helped until he wants to be helped. The employee must be able to make an honest self-evaluation of the problem and recognize the issues that are at stake as a result of alcoholism.
Why should note taking not be practiced during a counseling session?
Open note taking only contributes to the employee's apprehensions about the counseling session and will tend to increase his defensiveness.
When should the problem drinker be referred to professional help?
When the supervisor has reasonably exhausted his available resources and the resources immediately available to his agency to address the problem.
What is the objective(s) in counseling the problem drinker?
- 1) Get the problem drinker to stop drinking.
- 2) Lead him to the realization that he can never be a social drinker.
How is anxiety expressed subjectively?
Through the display or fear, dread, and panic.
How might anxiety be expressed outwardly?
Destructive acts of aggressiveness, family discord, and personality problems.
What are some common causes of depression?
- 1) Stress (even a short exposure).
- 2) A threatening situation.
- 3) Fear of failure.
- 4) Over-magnification of the importance of a goal.
What are the four categories into which employee dissatisfaction can be grouped?
- 1) Dissatisfaction with the working environment.
- 2) Inept supervisory practices.
- 3) Misunderstanding of policies, rules, and procedures.
- 4) Management failures.
What are some of the most prominent failures of management personnel that contribute to adverse employee reactions?
- 1) Tolerance of wasted time, effort, and physical resources.
- 2) Unjustified abuse of equipment.
- 3) Supervisory negligence in protecting the interests of the organization.
- 4) Violations of employee due process rights.
- 5) Infringement on employees right to privacy.
- 6) Arbitrary enforcement of rules.
What supervisory practices do employees oppose most in the enforcement of rules and regulations? (3)
- 1) Inconsistent enforcement.
- 2) Failure of supervisors to follow the rules that employees are expected to follow.
- 3) Overly severe punishment for violations of rules.
Describe and give an example of a due process violation.
An employee has a property interest in his job. In order for the employee to be fire by the agency, he must be advised of the charges being levied, and he must be afforded an opportunity to tell his side of the story. A violation of this procedure would be a violation of due process.
What is a formal grievance?
Is an employees formal complaint (oral or written) about an alleged work-related issue. Where possible, grievances should be handled at the lowest possible level.
What are the two forms of discipline? Discuss characteristics of each.
- 1) Positive Discipline - Training and attitudinal conditioning used to correct deficiencies without invoking actual punishment.
- 2) Negative Discipline - Discipline that takes the form of punishment.
What are the requisites of punishment? Which of these is the greatest deterrent to future misbehavior of a like nature?
- 1) Certainty - In order for punishment to be effective it must be certain for even the mildest of infractions. Certainty is perhaps the greatest deterrent. The fear that misconduct will certainly be discovered and inevitably punished in one way or another is a powerful deterrent.
- 2) Swiftness - Punishment should be carried out as quickly as possible after proof of wrong doing is established.
- 3) Fairness and Impartiality - Punishment must be equally administered to all employees without any degree of favoritism incorporated into the decision to punish or the nature of the punishment handed out.
- 4) Consistency - Punitive action for similar breaches should essentially be the same. The penalty should not only fit the offense, but it should also fit the individual.
- 5) Deterrence for others - Punitive action should set the tone for other employees so that there is no doubt what the consequences would be for them under similar circumstances.
Distinguish between a mistake of the head and a mistake of the heart. How should these mistakes affect corrective action?
- A mistake of the head is an act related to carelessness or deviation from the established standards. A mistake of the heart is an act of intentional misconduct.
- Police departments must have reasonable tolerance for "mistakes of the head", though not for "mistakes of the heart."
How can subordinates exert upward discipline against a superior?
By thwarting the supervisor's attempts to exercise leadership, by forcing him to maintain constant pressure on them to gain compliance with his directions, by withholding information from him, and other acts of direct and indirect interference with his leadership efforts.
What are some of the means you can use as a supervisor to utilize negative disciplinary actions as training for others?
Punitive action should serve as a deterrent to the employee who receives the punishment. It should also serve notice to other employees about what acts, violations, etc will not be tolerated and the consequences associated for the same or similar behavior. Publishing the results should be done in such a way that it educates without revealing unnecessary (or potentially confidential) details.
What is morale?
Morale is the state of mind reflecting the degree to which an individual has confidence in the members of the group and in the organization, believes in its objectives, and desires to accomplish them.
What is espirit de corps?
Espirit de corps is a sense of common endeavor and responsibility within a group setting (all for one and one for all).
Discuss how discipline, espirit de corps, and morale are interrelated.
High morale is generally accompanied by a high degree of discipline and espirit de corps. Neither a high level of morale or espirit de corps will commonly accompany a working atmosphere where discipline is lacking.
What are some of the indicators of morale in an organization? (5)
- 1) The quality / quantity of work being produced by employees.
- 2) Number of disciplinary cases.
- 3) Number of grievances.
- 4) Absenteeism.
- 5) Acts of disloyalty to the organization.
Discuss some of the adverse affects that often result when an employee is reinstated after he appeals his dismissal.
More often than not the employee becomes an embittered marginal performer, producing just enough to avoid further punishment and contaminating others at every opportunity.
Explain the doctrine of sovereign immunity. What other name is this doctrine known by?
Also refered to as "divine right of kings", sovereign immunity is a concept that essentially shielded a public employer from the civil liability incurred by the actions of its employees.
What are the three major objectives that a personnel investigation policy should cover?
- 1) To protect the integrity and reputation of the agency.
- 2) To protect the public interest.
- 3) To protect the accused employee from unjust accusations.
What is the "empty pockets" principle?
The principle that it is essentially pointless to sue an individual with "empty pockets" for official wrongdoing because he will never be able to pay the court-imposed fines, penalties, and damages.
What is the doctrine that now makes public entities liable for wrongful acts or omissions of their employees?
What personal liability might a supervisor have for the criminal misdeeds by a subordinate on duty?
- A supervisor could incur liability for denying his due process rights.
- A supervisor could be held liable for his action or inaction with regards to training, supervision, or control of his subordinates.
What are internal complaints?
Complaints originating from within the organization such as report deficiencies, failure to follow P&P in temporary holding facility, etc.
Where do primary and secondary complaints originate? Give example of each.
- 1) Primary complaint originates from a citizen who is alleging police misconduct of some sort.
- 2) Secondary complaint originates from a citizen who is making a complaint on behalf of someone else who is alleging misconduct.
Discuss anonymous complaints and how you would handle them.
Complaints from an anonymous sources should be treated with caution and discretion, because of the potential adverse impact they can have on employees morale. Such complaints should be considered on their own merit.
How would you handle a complaint from an intoxicated person?
Persons who make complaints when they are intoxicated should always be reinterviewed when they are sober. Such complaints however should not be discarded because the complainant is intoxicated.
If a complaint was made against one of your employees, why should his personnel record be checked as part of the investigation?
Personnel records of accused employees should be checked for a history of any similar complaints.
Why should face to face encounters be prevented between the accused employee and his accuser?
Because they are rarely productive and can lead to confrontational behavior, additional accusations, and potential violence.
What are the general procedures a supervisor should follow when he discovers a minor infraction on the part of a subordinate? A serious complaint?
- A minor infraction can be disposed of at the time they are observed by the supervisor issuing a warning or an admonishment.
- A serious complaint -
- 1) Follow established laws and policies (POBAR / P&P).
- 2) Avoid premature conclusions.
- 3) Prevent additional harm.
- 4) Promptness of investigation.
- 5) Personnel records check.
- 6) Interview accused employee.
- 7) Only arrest the employee after the chief has been notified of the circumstances.
- 8) Recognize that officers accused of serious offenses have the same constitutional protections as a private citizen.
If you received a complaint concerning a serious incident involving one of your subordinates but the complainant was not able to identify him, what means of identifying him would you use? What precautions would you take if the incident involved a criminal offense?
An employee may be ordered to participate in a line-up to be identified by a complainant and may be disciplined for refusing, but the line-up must not be unfairly suggestive. It is becoming standard to use photographic line-ups consistent with local law and court decisions.
If a search of a subordinate's person, locker, private vehicle, or residence is indicated, how would you accomplish the search?
Whenever practical, searches should be made in private, in the employee's presence, and with his consent. Departmental policies and 4th amendment rules must be adhered to, and the nature of the search, the reason the search is being conducted must also be taken into account to ensure the search is conducted within policy and established laws.
Generally, what are the sections of a typical personnel investigation report, and what information should each section contain? (6)
- 1) Heading - Contains the details that identify the reporting supervisor, the person to whom the report is directed, date/time, etc.
- 2) Statement of Complainant - Brief statement of the accusation, name of the accuser, name of the accused.
- 3) Summary of the Investigation - A concise account of the material findings of the inquiry and a brief review of all evidentiary findings that are relevant.
- 4) Details of the Investigation - A detailed account of of the inquiry (including all statements).
- 5) Conclusions - Supervisors conclusion that he has drawn from the inquiry (only after a superior has asked for such conclusions--or if department rules require them up front.
- 6) Recommendations - Normally omitted (handled at higher level than the investigator), may refer to a schedule of corrective action (if such a document exists) to assist with formulating recommendations that are consistent with department disciplinary practices.
What are some of the common failures of supervisors in making personnel complaint investigations?
- 1) Inadequate supervisory training on how to handle complaints.
- 2) Failure of the investigator to fulfill his responsibilities in gathering sufficient evidence.
- 3) Supervisors fear of disapproval from those with whom he works.
Discuss the uses that can be made of the data obtainable from an effective service rating system.
An effective rating system serves to maintain reasonable performance standards, contributes to maintaining progressive training standards, and facilitates placement, promotion, and executive development.
List and discuss the causes for a service rating system failure. (6)
- 1) Indifference- Raters do not demonstrate that they want the system to succeed.
- 2) Employee pressures - Employees can bring formal pressure on the organization to modify, adjust, or otherwise alter the rating system making it unworkable.
- 3) Failure to train raters - Supervisors must be trained on how the rating system works in order to administer it fairly and effectively.
- 4) Rating abuses - Management misuses the rating system or is perceived as treating some personnel more favorably then others--making the system seem unfair.
- 5) Slipshod Procedures - Raters not taking the time to properly implement the rating system.
- 6) Rating Shortcuts - Compromising the rating system through the use of inappropriate shortcuts and abbreviated versions of rating scales.
Discuss some of the methods for gathering and recording employee performance data that can be used as a basis for personnel evaluations. (2)
- 1) Recording Method - Formalized record keeping that documents both positive and negative performance. Such records are retained during the rating period.
- 2) Critical Incident Technique - Involves collecting data about an employee's performance as it occurs (both satisfactory and unsatisfactory). Minimizes vague or abstract trait ratings.
- CH 13 PG 233
What are the four main categories into which traits and abilities of employees should be grouped for rating purposes. (4)
- 1) Personal characteristics - Honesty, character, attitude, appearance, loyalty.
- 2) Performance - quality / quantity of work, accuracy, efficiency, effectiveness.
- 3) Ability - stability, initiative, job knowledge, judgement.
- 4) Suitability for promotion - leadership ability, administration ability, acceptance of responsibility, decision making.
- CH 13 PG 236
Discuss the rating criteria that the supervisor may utilize in appraising patrol and traffic personnel, investigative personnel, and staff auxiliary personnel.
- Patrol / Traffic - Officers performance in the field, his reliability, traffic enforcement, court performance.
- Investigative Personnel - Quality of work, cases cleared, progress on assigned cases, record keeping ability.
- Staff and Auxiliary Personnel - Quality of work, writing ability, working relationship with operational personnel.
- CH 13 PG 238-239
Discuss the rating standards and methods commonly used in rating systems to compare employees. (5)
- 1) Employee Ranking - Ranks employees on a descending scale based on their perceived relative value to the organization.
- 2) Representative Employee Standard - Allows the supervisor to rank employees by comparing them with other employees who have been identified as having the greatest, average, and least value to the organization.
- 3) Ideal Employee Standard - The rater uses a pre established set of descriptors and qualities that the ideal employee should have, and compares his actual employees to this pre established standard in order to form a rating.
- 4) Numerical Standard - The rater uses a numerical scale (similar to a Likert scale) to quantify and employees performance in the traits being evaluated.
- 5) Forced-Choice Standard - The rater decides whether the employees performance in each rating category is either satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
- CH 14 PG 242-244
What broad characteristics are usually found in supervisors who excel in rating subordinates? (6)
- 1) Able to distinguish facts from feelings / impressions.
- 2) Able to weigh the performance of their subordinates against a consistent standard.
- 3) Able to base their ratings on objective data whenever possible, without allowing subjective emotions, individual likes / dislikes, or biases to influence them.
- 4) Are careful to avoid committing the error of rating on the basis of vague general impressions.
- 5) Make every effort to rate on the basis of person individual traits.
- 6) They are systematic and thorough in recording accurate data relating to their observations of employees throughout the rating period.
- CH 14 PG 248
List seven common rating errors and discuss how each is committed.
- 1) Leniency - Occurs when rater marks a large number of rating reports in the highest one or two categories.
- 2) Personal Bias - Occurs when rater gives higher marks to someone because he likes the person he is rating.
- 3) Central Tendency - Occurs when rater groups their ratings near the center with few marks at the bottom or top.
- 4) Halo Effect - Tendency of a rater to rate in terms of general impression instead of specific rate.
- 5) Related Traits - Also referred to as logical error, occurs when rater gives similar marks for traits that seem to be similar.
- 6) Overweighting or Recency - Occurs when the rater bases a rating score on a recent event or occurrence in employees history.
- 7) Subjectivity - Also referred to as the error of personal bias. Occurs when the rater is unduly influenced by one or two characteristics that have special appeal to him.
- CH 14 PG 249-251
Distinguish between validity and reliability in rating reports.
- A valid report is one that is an accurate measurement of the abilities it is intended to measure.
- A reliable report is one that measures consistently and reasonably accurate every time it is uses.
- CH 14 PG 252-253
What are the most common rating methods? (3)
- 1) Composite ratings - The superior officer of making a composite rating from the several individual appraisals, usually by a process of averaging the ratings. Individual raters do not always have access to the same data.
- 2) Group Ratings - An individual is rated by a group of supervisors in conference who pool their evaluations to come up with an evaluation that all agree on. The disadvantage is that an especially articulate (but biased) rater could skew with results of the group evaluation.
- 3) Individual Trait Ratings - Raters evaluate the employees performance one trait characteristic at a time. The disadvantage is the halo effect because of the impact that similar trait ratings can have on one another.
- CH 14 PG 254
What is normally the principle objective in deploying personnel during the initial stages of an unusual occurrence? (2)
- 1) Get an accurate picture of what is happening.
- 2) Make a determination about what resources are needed to respond effectively to the evolving incident.
- CH 16 PG 284
What factors will affect the supervisor's ability to perform or cause to performed the many tasks needed during the initial stages of an unusual occurrence? (3)
- 1) How well the supervisor is able to organize, systemize, and delegate.
- 2) The complexity of the incident.
- 3) The number of personnel immediately available.
- 4) How proficient the personnel are and what equipment, supplies, and facilities are available to them.
- CH 16 PG 285
What factors should be considered in the establishment of a field command post? (6)
- 1) Easily identifiable on a map.
- 2) Big enough for the incident.
- 3) Permits good communication (no radio dead spots).
- 4) Not exposed to hazards (gunfire, chemical threats).
- 5) Provides a staging area for responding assets, equipment, and personnel.
- 6) Good access routes available.
- CH 16 PG 286
What approach should be used with a rational barricaded suspect holding a hostage? An emotionally troubled suspect?
- Rational - Point out futility of suspects actions, make logical appeal by informing the suspect he is surrounded and cannot escape, and ensure the suspect he wont be hurt when surrendering.
- Emotionally disturbed - Try to determine why the suspect is taken the action he has (identify suspects grievance). Remain calm, patient in all interactions with the suspect. Encourage the suspect to talk. Communication with the suspect may provide the hostage an opportunity to escape.
- CH 16 PG 292
When officers respond to an active shooter situation, why might immediate entry into the location be necessary?
Entry into the location is done for the purpose of minimizing casualties.
If chemical agents are to be used against a high-risk barricaded suspect in a business establishment, how should the gas be introduced into the building?
If possible, divert the suspects attention at the moment of deployment so the gas has enough time to disperse without the suspect throwing it back or neutralizing it. Deploy the gas directly into the room / location where the suspect is located.
Why is powdered chemical agent preferred over gas agents?
Chemical (hot gas) agents pose a risk of fire when deployed.
Why should a suspect be required to approach officers when he leaves his barricaded position to surrender?
So that officers can control the suspects movement from a position of cover.
What follow-up action should be taken after a mob has been dispersed?
Ensure sufficient control personnel remain in the affected area to prevent new outbreaks / looting. These forces should remain in place until the situation has calmed to a degree that strongly suggests a return to normalcy.
What is the basic strategy of civil disorder?
- 1) Recognize the importance of accurate and timely field intelligence.
- 2) Speed of the response and decisiveness of police action directly influences whether an incident of civil disorder remains relatively calm and small scale or it balloons into a truly large scale riot.
What are the primary police responsibilities in a major disaster? (5)
- 1) Collect field intelligence and transmit it to a higher headquarters.
- 2) Establish a command post.
- 3) Initiate perimeter and access control.
- 4) Deploy reconnaissance units.
- 5) Implement pre-existing disaster response plans.
What are some of the indicators of a radiological disaster? (8)
- 1) Unusual number of sick or dying animals.
- 2) Unusual metal debris.
- 3) Radiation symbols.
- 4) Heat-emmitting metals or material.
- 5) Glowing materials or particles.
- 6) Placards associated with radiological incidents.
- 7) Radiation detected at the scene by Geiger counters.
- 8) Written / verbal threats.
What are the "Now" actions that a supervisor should take when responding to a terrorist attack involving chemical / biological weapons? (12)
- 1) Ensure first responding officers assess the situation and threat level from a safe distance.
- 2) Assume command. Direct, guide, control subordinates.
- 3) Detail subordinates to the scene during initial response to assist in removing people from harms way.
- 4) Advise units to be aware of secondary devices.
- 5) Ensure follow-on responders are given updated information.
- 6) Direct personnel entering the hot zone to use full PPE.
- 7) Establish big initial perimeter.
- 8) Ensure information regarding suspects is disseminated.
- 9) Ensure notifications of emergency response agencies.
- 10) Ensure the area hospitals are alerted.
- 11) Notify next in command.
- 12) Request updates on survivors, injuries, and fatalities and status of situation.
What are the biggest dangers at the scene of a military aircraft crash?
Military aircraft often have ejection seat technology that incorporates an explosive charge. Such systems require careful handling to avoid injury / death.
Why should a radio not be used at the scene of a bomb threat?
The radio signal may cause the bomb to detonate.
What equipment should personnel use in making a search for a bomb in a building?
- 1) Mirrors
- 2) Screwdriver sets (for looking underneath things)
- 3) Specially trained K9 units.
What types of objects should search personnel look for in making a bomb search in a building?
- 1) Foreign objects / packages.
- 2) Items that appear to have been left behind.
- 3) Objects that appear to be out of place.
If a bomb is not found in a building after a careful search, what should the supervisor tell the person in charge?
Inform the person in charge that a bomb was not found, but avoid suggesting that the building is safe for occupancy.
What are the primary police duties at the scene of a major fire?
- 1) Ensure appropriate notifications have been made to the fire department about the fire (size, area it is affecting, potential hazards).
- 2) Perimeter control (scene containment and access control.
Why should a multi-story building search be considered from the top down?
The suspect may be hidden where he can be located and arrested by a search team or he can be forced downward and apprehended by the arrest team.